Cell cycle control and its modulation in HPV infected cells
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A key effect of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is to disrupt the normal cell cycle in order to subvert the cellular DNA replication machinery. Morphologically, condylomata induced by high and low risk HPV types cannot be distinguished and many studies have shown that the pattern of viral gene expression is similar in condylomata caused by both high risk and low risk HPV types. Detailed morphological study of cell cycle protein expression has not previously been performed on condylomata infected with low risk HPV types. The findings presented suggest that the mechanisms employed by low risk HPV6 or HPV11 to subvert cellular functions in condylomata acuminata are similar to those employed by high risk HPVs, with the exception of cyclin D1 and p53 protein over-expression. The differences in p53 expression and cyclin D1 expression seen between high and low risk HPV infection, reflect the known differences between high and low risk types and are in agreement with the known differences between high risk and low risk E6 and E7 proteins. PHK transduction studies demonstrated HPV E6 and E7 induce changes in cell cycle protein expression and that there are differences in cell cycle abrogation between HPV6 and HPV16. Disruption of the p53-MDM2 interaction can lead to activation of the p53 pathway. HPV infected lesions almost always contain wild-type p53. The binding of HPV E6 to p53, and its subsequent targeting for degradation, prevents activation of the p53 pathway in HPV infected cells. Cells over expressing HPV genes were treated with Nutlin-3, a MDM2-small molecule antagonist. The findings presented suggest treatment with Nutlin-3 induces cell cycle arrest in cells expressing HPV16 E7 and HPV6 E6 and HPV6 E7. This suggests a potential role for Nutlin-3 in the treatment of HPV infected cells.
Thesis, PhD Doctor of Philosophy
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