Advanced methods for enhanced sensing in biomedical Raman spectroscopy
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Raman spectroscopy is a powerful tool in the field of biomedicine for disease diagnosis owing to its potential to provide the molecular fingerprint of biological samples. However due to the inherent weak nature of the Raman process, there is a constant quest for enhancing the sensitivity of this technique for enhanced diagnostic efficiency. This thesis focuses on achieving this goal by integrating advanced methods with Raman spectroscopy. Firstly this thesis explores the applicability of a laser based fluorescence suppression technique – Wavelength Modulated Raman Spectroscopy (WMRS) - for suppressing the broad luminescence background which often obscure the Raman peaks. The WMRS technique was optimized for its applications in single cell studies and tissue studies for enhanced sensing without compromising the throughput. It has been demonstrated that the optimized parameter would help to chemically profile single cell within 6 s. A two fold enhancement in SNR of Raman bands was demonstrated when WMRS was implemented in fiber Raman based systems for tissue analysis. The suitability of WMRS on highly sensitive single molecule detection techniques such as Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS) and Surface Enhanced Resonance Raman Spectroscopy (SERRS) was also explored. Further this optimized technique was successfully used to address an important biological problem in the field of immunology. This involved label-free identification of major immune cell subsets from human blood. Later part of this thesis explores a multimodal approach where Raman spectroscopy was combined with Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) for enhanced diagnostic sensitivity (>10%). This approach was used to successfully discriminate between ex-vivo adenocarcinoma tissues and normal colon tissues. Finally this thesis explores the design and implementation of a specialized fiber Raman probe that is compatible with surgical environments. This probe was originally developed to be compatible with Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) environment. It has the potential to be used for performing minimally invasive optical biopsy during interventional MRI procedures.
Thesis, PhD Doctor of Philosophy
Embargo Date: 2018-03-18
Embargo Reason: Thesis restricted in accordance with University regulations. Print and electronic copy of chapters 6 and 8, [Vol. 2], restricted until 18th March 2018
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