Dendrimer light-emitting diodes
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The electronics industry today is one that stands as a multi-billion dollar industry that is increasingly incorporating more and more products that have ever escalating applications in our everyday life. One of the main sectors of this industry, and one that is likely to continue expanding for a considerable number of years are flat-panel displays. Traditionally, the displays market has been dominated by cathode ray tube (CRT) and liquid crystal displays (LCDs) display types. The drawback of such display displays is that they can be bulky, heavy and/or expensive and so there is considerable room for an alternative and superior technology. One possibility is organic semiconductor displays where light-emitting molecules can be dissolved in common solvents before being inkjet printed, spin-coated or even painted onto any surface giving the benefits of simple and cost effective processing. Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) have recently become ever more evident as a major display type. This thesis focuses on the advancement of light-emitting dendrimers towards flat-panel display applications. The particular interest in dendrimers arises because it has been found they are capable of giving solution-processed phosphorescent devices with high efficiency. Throughout the thesis the benefits of the dendrimer concept are repeatedly shown revealing why this could become the ideal organic material for display applications. The thesis introduces various techniques of electroluminescence and photoluminescence measurements before applying such methods to study a large number of light-emitting dendrimers in order to explore the role of intermolecular interactions, how they are related to molecular structure, and how this determines photophysical and charge transporting properties of the dendrimers. By such studies a number of highly efficient solution-processed phosphorescent light-emitting dendrimers have been identified while the efficiency of devices made from these dendrimers has been improved. This has been demonstrated in each of the three primary display colours of red, green and blue. The work detailed thus brings closer the prospect of dendrimer light-emitting diodes being the future flat-panel display type of choice.
Thesis, PhD Doctor of Philosophy
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