Consequences of the interaction of amyloid beta with amyloid binding alcohol dehydrogenase and the receptor for advanced glycation end products
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Amyloid beta (Aβ) has been postulated to be the principle initiator of the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Therefore, understanding the underlying mechanisms of Aβ induced neurotoxicity in the early stages of AD would be essential for finding potential therapeutic targets of AD. Aβ-binding alcohol dehydrogenase (ABAD) has been shown to be a mitochondrial binding site for Aβ. Expression of ABAD has been found to be increased in brains of AD sufferers. Two dimensional electrophoresis studies have revealed that endophilin 1 was upregulated in Tg mAPP/ABAD mice brains as compared to Tg mAPP, Tg ABAD and non-Tg mice brains. Increased expression of endophilin 1 has also been found in brains of AD patients as compared to non-demented control brain tissues. Endophilin1 has been reported to regulate c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) activation. In this study, expression of dominant negative forms of endophilin 1 (DN-endophilin 1) in mouse cortical neurons exhibited a significant reduction of Aβ induced JNK activation. Furthermore, using cell counting methods, it was shown that the transfection of DN-endophilin 1 increased neuron survival after Aβ treatment. Aβ has also been proposed to disrupt the interaction of ABAD and Cyclophilin D (CypD), which would trigger mitochondrial permeable transition, thereby leading to neurotoxicity. For fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) analysis of the interaction of ABAD and CypD, a mitochondria targeted, EYFP tagged ABAD plasmid (pMito-ABAD-EYFP) and an ECFP tagged CypD (pCypD-ECFP) plasmid were developed. Positive FRET signals in SK-N-SH cells co-expressing pMito-ABAD-EYFP and pCypD-ECFP indicated that ABAD interacts with CypD in the mitochondria of mammalian cells. RAGE (receptor for advanced glycation end products) has been reported to bind to Aβ and mediate the toxic effects of Aβ peptides on neurons and microglia. It has been shown previously that Tg mAPP/DN-RAGE mice display preserved cognitive function as compared to Tg mAPP mice. To investigate possible mechanisms involved in rescuing cognitive function by RAGE blockage, two dimensional electrophoresis was used to analyze differential protein expression between Tg mAPP and Tg mAPP/DN-RAGE mice cortex. Altered expression of four proteins, including NADH dehydrogenase flavoprotein 2 (NDUFV2), glyoxalase 1 (GLO1), proteasome subunit beta type 4 (PSMB4, or β7 subunit of proteasome) and nitrilase family, member 2 (Nit2) have been observed between Tg mAPP/DN-RAGE mice cortex and Tg mAPP mice cortex. NDUFV2 is a 24kDa subunit of complex 1 which is involved in ATP synthesis. GLO1 is a cytosolic enzyme that plays a role the glutathione-dependent detoxification of α-oxoaldehydes, such as methylglyoxal. PSMB4 is a subunit of the 26s proteosome which is in the degradation of ubiquitinylated proteins. The function of Nit2 is still unclear.
Thesis, PhD Doctor of Philosophy
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