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dc.contributor.advisorMurer, Jeffrey Stevenson
dc.contributor.authorTsukayama, John K.
dc.coverage.spatialxi, 304en_US
dc.description.abstractThis study examines the phenomenon of abusive violence (AV) in the context of the American Post-9/11 Counter-terrorism and Counter-insurgency campaigns. Previous research into atrocities by states and their agents has largely come from examinations of totalitarian regimes with well-developed torture and assassination institutions. The mechanisms influencing willingness to do harm have been examined in experimental studies of obedience to authority and the influences of deindividuation, dehumanization, context and system. This study used Interpretive Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) to examine the lived experience of AV reported by fourteen American military and intelligence veterans. Participants were AV observers, objectors, or abusers. Subjects described why AV appeared sensible at the time, how methods of violence were selected, and what sense they made of their experiences after the fact. Accounts revealed the roles that frustration, fear, anger and mission pressure played to prompt acts of AV that ranged from the petty to heinous. Much of the AV was tied to a shift in mission view from macro strategic aims of CT and COIN to individual and small group survival. Routine hazing punishment soldiers received involving forced exercise and stress positions made similar acts inflicted on detainees unrecognizable as abusive. Overt and implied permissiveness from military superiors enabled AV extending to torture, and extra-judicial killings. Attempting to overcome feelings of vulnerability, powerlessness and rage, subjects enacted communal punishment through indiscriminate beatings and shooting. Participants committed AV to amuse themselves and humiliate their enemies; some killed detainees to force confessions from others, conceal misdeeds, and avoid routine paperwork. Participants realized that AV practices were unnecessary, counter-productive, and self-damaging. Several reduced or halted their AV as a result. The lived experience of AV left most respondents feeling guilt, shame, and inadequacy, whether they committed abuse or failed to stop it.en_US
dc.publisherUniversity of St Andrews
dc.subjectAbusive violenceen_US
dc.subjectExtra-judicial killingsen_US
dc.subjectStress positionsen_US
dc.subjectTerrorism studiesen_US
dc.subjectCounter insurgencyen_US
dc.subjectDetainee abuseen_US
dc.subjectInterperpretive phenomenological analysisen_US
dc.subjectClean tortureen_US
dc.subjectScarring tortureen_US
dc.subjectCutting tortureen_US
dc.subjectSimulated drowningen_US
dc.subjectWater boardingen_US
dc.subjectCommand responsibilityen_US
dc.subjectCommand authorityen_US
dc.subjectHuman shielden_US
dc.subjectObedience to authorityen_US
dc.subjectMission focusen_US
dc.subjectMission shiften_US
dc.subjectForced exerciseen_US
dc.subjectAbuser guilten_US
dc.subjectAbuser shameen_US
dc.subjectWar on Terroren_US
dc.subjectWar crimeen_US
dc.subjectSpecial operationsen_US
dc.subjectDetainee Interaction Studyen_US
dc.subjectPost traumatic stressen_US
dc.subjectAbu Ghraiben_US
dc.subjectCommunal punishmenten_US
dc.subjectNon-combatant abuseen_US
dc.subject.lcshEnemies--United States--Violence against--Psychological aspects--Case studiesen_US
dc.subject.lcshPrisoners of war--Iraq--Abuse of--Psychological aspects--Case studiesen_US
dc.subject.lcshTorture--Iraq--Psychological aspects--Case studiesen_US
dc.subject.lcshIraq War, 2003-2011--Prisoners and prisons, American--Case studiesen_US
dc.subject.lcshMilitary interrogation--United States--Psychological aspects--Case studiesen_US
dc.subject.lcshVeterans--United States--Interviewsen_US
dc.subject.lcshIntelligence officers--United States--Interviewsen_US
dc.titleBy any means necessary : an interpretive phenomenological analysis study of post 9/11 American abusive violence in Iraqen_US
dc.contributor.sponsorRussell Trusten_US
dc.type.qualificationnamePhD Doctor of Philosophyen_US
dc.publisher.institutionThe University of St Andrewsen_US

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