## Endomorphisms of Fraïssé limits and automorphism groups of algebraically closed relational structures

##### Abstract

Let Ω be the Fraïssé limit of a class of relational structures. We seek to
answer the following semigroup theoretic question about Ω. What are the group H-classes, i.e. the maximal subgroups, of End(Ω)? Fraïssé limits for which we answer this question include the random graph
R, the random directed graph D, the random tournament T, the random bipartite graph B, Henson's graphs G[subscript n] (for n greater or equal to 3) and the total order Q. The maximal subgroups of End(Ω) are closely connected to the automorphism groups of the relational structures induced by the images of idempotents from End(Ω). It has been shown that the relational structure induced by the image of an idempotent from End(Ω) is algebraically closed. Accordingly, we investigate which groups can be realised as the automorphism group of an algebraically closed relational structure in order to
determine the maximal subgroups of End(Ω) in each case. In particular, we show that if Γ is a countable graph and Ω = R,D,B,
then there exist 2[superscript aleph-naught] maximal subgroups of End(Ω) which are isomorphic to Aut(Γ). Additionally, we provide a complete description of the subsets
of Q which are the image of an idempotent from End(Q). We call these subsets retracts of Q and show that if Ω is a total order and f is an embedding of Ω into Q such that im f is a retract of Q, then there exist 2[superscript aleph-naught] maximal subgroups of End(Q) isomorphic to Aut(Ω). We also show that any countable maximal subgroup of End(Q) must be isomorphic to Zⁿ for some natural number n. As a consequence of the methods developed, we are also able to show that when Ω = R,D,B,Q there exist 2[superscript aleph-naught] regular D-classes of End(Ω) and when Ω = R,D,B there exist 2[superscript aleph-naught] J-classes of End(Ω). Additionally we show
that if Ω = R,D then all regular D-classes contain 2[superscript aleph-naught] group H-classes. On the other hand, we show that when
Ω = B,Q there exist regular D-classes
which contain countably many group H-classes.

##### Type

Thesis, PhD Doctor of Philosophy

##### Rights

Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported

http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/
##### Collections

Except where otherwise noted within the work, this item's license for re-use is described as Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported

Items in the St Andrews Research Repository are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.