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dc.contributor.advisorKnight, Daniel M.
dc.contributor.advisorHarris, Mark
dc.contributor.advisorBunn, Stephanie
dc.contributor.authorKoulouri, Maria
dc.description.abstractSince the Middle Horizon the Khipu, or cord writing, of Peru has employed standardised signs. The Inka empire further extended the Khipu for the recording of various aspects of mundane and ritual life. Later, hybrid Khipu combining alphabetic with Indigenous Khipu script, such as the Khipu Boards of Mangas and Casta, were used in the central Andes from the sixteenth century until the middle of the twentieth century. Using a multidisciplinary approach, I triangulated archaeometry (statistical analysis) of the first digital record of the alphabetic Khipu from the community of Mangas in Ancash, with ethnoarchaeology and ethnomethodology at the community of San Pedro de Casta in Huarochirí of Lima. I compare the Mangas Khipu Board with Middle-Horizon Khipu and I look at the use of Khipu Boards through material and ethnographic analysis. Prioritising Indigenous perspectives, I explore the multidimensionality of work tribute registered on the hybrid Khipu of Mangas and Casta to detect sign redundancy and offer an interpretation of their meaning (semantic decipherment). I demonstrate how non-hierarchical structures have been overlooked with the assumption that Khipu structures are hierarchically nested. I develop complex ethnomodels, applicable to other Khipu exhibiting multilevel structures beyond those of the ethnographic context, for the purpose of aiding Khipu methodology and towards a ‘multilevel turn’ in mixed-methods anthropology.en_US
dc.rightsCreative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International*
dc.subjectKhipu Boardsen_US
dc.subjectIndigenous cord writingen_US
dc.subjectEthnographic fieldworken_US
dc.subjectAndean ritualen_US
dc.subjectMultilevel structuresen_US
dc.subjectMultidimensionality of tributeen_US
dc.subjectKhipu methodologyen_US
dc.subject.lcshManuscripts, Spanish American--Andes Regionen
dc.subject.lcshIndians of South America--Andes Region--Social life and customsen
dc.subject.lcshDecolonization in literatureen
dc.subject.lcshIndians of South America--Andes Region--Mathematicsen
dc.titleDeciphering the multilevel Khipu structures : a mixed-methods triangulation modelled on the communal Khipu Boards of Mangas and Castaen_US
dc.contributor.sponsorLeverhulme Trusten_US
dc.contributor.sponsorUniversity of St Andrewsen_US
dc.type.qualificationnamePhD Doctor of Philosophyen_US
dc.publisher.institutionThe University of St Andrewsen_US
dc.rights.embargoreasonThesis restricted in accordance with University regulations. Restricted until 21 August 2025en
dc.identifier.grantnumber1-CHB3-000000 (111MAINSS 008)en_US

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    Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International
    Except where otherwise noted within the work, this item's licence for re-use is described as Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International