Show simple item record

Files in this item


Item metadata

dc.contributor.advisorHinnebusch, Raymond A.
dc.contributor.advisorGani, J. K.
dc.contributor.authorAl-Rashdi, Aisha Hadi
dc.description.abstractThe thesis looks into the sectarian dynamics of the 2011 Arab Uprisings and the accompanying struggles over power in both Bahrain and Syria. It builds on constructivist understandings of sectarian identities and the process of securitization of those identities, by actors within each state, to concentrate power via means of a sectarianization of the conflicts. It also shows how regional power shifts and struggles, and how it exacerbates the sectarianization of the uprisings. The thesis examines the struggle from several points of view, including the international, regional, and national levels. It also focuses on the role of the following key variables in shaping the outcome of the 2011 Arab Uprisings: colonial legacy, ideology, class, tribe, socioeconomic status, and political standing. This thesis is divided into two parts: the first focuses on Bahrain and the second focuses on Syria. Each part comprises one chapter that focuses on the state formation of the respective countries and another chapter that focuses on the causes and processes of sectarian conflict due to the state formation and securitization of the 2011 uprisings and their trajectories. Firstly, the thesis studies the early stages of the state formation processes by which the current states were established, involving the techniques of sect-state relations, especially regarding the distribution of resources and control over state politics. Subsequently, it examines the 2011 “sectarian conflicts,” showing that they are not an inevitable feature of multi-sect states. Instead, it was only through the use of certain securitization methods that the regimes were able to manipulate sectarian identities in the uprisings. The peaceful protesters turned to sect-based violent conflict due to clashes between the regimes and radical groups. The securitization of sectarian identities by both regimes and opposition groups, along with the inequitable distribution of material gains, affected audience receptivity. The internal social movements of 2011 were further drawn toward sectarianization through the interventions and changing trajectories of regional powers.en_US
dc.rightsCreative Commons Attribution 4.0 International*
dc.subject2011 Arab Uprisingsen_US
dc.subjectState formationen_US
dc.subject.lcshArab Spring, 2010-en
dc.subject.lcshProtest movements--Bahrainen
dc.subject.lcshProtest movements--Syriaen
dc.subject.lcshNational securityen
dc.subject.lcshBahrain--Politics and government--21st century.en
dc.subject.lcshSyria--Politics and government--21st centuryen
dc.titleA comparative study of the sectarianization of the 2011 Uprisings in Bahrain and Syriaen_US
dc.type.qualificationnamePhD Doctor of Philosophyen_US
dc.publisher.institutionThe University of St Andrewsen_US
dc.rights.embargoreasonThesis restricted in accordance with University regulations. Restricted until 18th May 2028en

The following licence files are associated with this item:

    This item appears in the following Collection(s)

    Show simple item record

    Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International
    Except where otherwise noted within the work, this item's licence for re-use is described as Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International