Romans overseas : Roman and Italian migrant communities in the Mediterranean world
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In this thesis, I characterise the Roman republican diaspora in the western Mediterranean, on the basis of the various activities which prompted the migration of individuals from Italy. The intention of my discussion is to examine the connection between republican imperialism and the generally obscure individuals who were the actual participants in empire. This is partly a response to Brunt’s Italian Manpower, in so far as Brunt’s minimalist calculation of the population of the diaspora discouraged subsequent research on the subject. To accomplish this, I have relied principally on the available literary references as the foundation of a thematic analysis of the diaspora, considering migration of those in the military or associated with it, as well as those involved in various categories of commercial activity. The settlement of former soldiers was frequently connected with the re-organisation of overseas communities by Roman generals. Commercial activity was examined with reference to a general model for trade in the late republic, which emphasises the role of agents acting on behalf of wealthier individuals in Italy. I also considered more general characteristics of the diaspora. Firstly, I have proposed a maximum population for the diaspora at the end of the republic of 170,000. Secondly, I have proposed that communities of the diaspora were organising themselves into conventus by the 70s BC. Finally, I have suggested that the social and economic networks of the diaspora can be modelled in terms of a network of bilateral connections between communities, though with particularly strong connections to Rome.
Thesis, PhD Doctor of Philosophy