Automated theorem proving for mathematics : real analysis in PVS
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Computer Algebra Systems (CASs), such as Maple and Mathematica, are now widely used in both industry and education. In many areas of mathematics they perform well. However, many well-established methods in mathematics, such as definite integration via the fundamental theorem of calculus, rely on analytic side conditions which CASs in general do not support. This thesis presents our work with automatic, formal mathematics using the theorem prover PVS. Based on an existing real analysis library for PVS, we have implemented transcendental functions such as exp, cos, sin, tan and their inverses, and we have provided strategies to prove that a function is continuous at a given point. In general, this is undecidable, but using certain restrictions we can still provide proofs for a large collection of functions. Similarly, we can prove that a function has a limit at a point. We illustrate how the extended library may be used with Maple to provide correct results where Maple's are incorrect. We present a case study of definite integration in the CASs axiom. Maple, Mathematica and Matlab. The case study clearly shows that apart from axiom the systems do not fully check the necessary conditions for the definite integral to exist, thus giving results varying from plain incorrect to correct, even if the latter is difficult to detect without manipulating the result. The extension and correction of the PVS library consists of around 1000 theorems proven by around 18000 PVS proof commands. We also have a test suite of 88 lemmas for the automatic checks for continuity and existence of limits. Thus we have devised and tested automatic computational logic support for the use of formal mathematics in applications, particularly computer algebra.
Thesis, PhD Doctor of Philosophy
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