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dc.contributor.authorDavies, Nicholas
dc.contributor.authorRoss, Laura
dc.contributor.authorGardner, Andy
dc.identifier.citationDavies , N , Ross , L & Gardner , A 2016 , ' The ecology of sex explains patterns of helping in arthropod societies ' , Ecology Letters , vol. 19 , no. 8 , pp. 862-872 .
dc.identifier.otherPURE: 242202114
dc.identifier.otherPURE UUID: 89624f6a-b441-47d1-aa29-fb6688071ec8
dc.identifier.otherScopus: 84971602464
dc.identifier.otherWOS: 000379966300004
dc.descriptionAuthors thank the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NGD), the Clarendon Fund (NGD) and the Natural Environment Research Council (LR, NE/K009516/1; AG, NE/K009524/1) for funding.en
dc.description.abstractAcross arthropod societies, sib-rearing (e.g. nursing or nest defence) may be provided by females, by males or by both sexes. According to Hamilton's ‘haplodiploidy hypothesis’, this diversity reflects the relatedness consequences of diploid vs. haplodiploid inheritance. However, an alternative ‘preadaptation hypothesis’ instead emphasises an interplay of ecology and the co-option of ancestral, sexually dimorphic traits for sib-rearing. The preadaptation hypothesis has recently received empirical support, but remains to be formalised. Here, we mathematically model the coevolution of sex-specific helping and sex allocation, contrasting these hypotheses. We find that ploidy per se has little effect. Rather, the ecology of sex shapes patterns of helping: sex-specific preadaptation strongly influences who helps; a freely adjustable sex ratio magnifies sex biases and promotes helping; and sib-mating, promiscuity, and reproductive autonomy also modulate the sex and abundance of helpers. An empirical survey reveals that patterns of sex-specific helping in arthropod taxa are consistent with the preadaptation hypothesis.
dc.relation.ispartofEcology Lettersen
dc.rights© 2016 The Authors. Ecology Letters published by CNRS and John Wiley & Sons Ltd. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.en
dc.subjectInclusive fitnessen
dc.subjectLocal mate competitionen
dc.subjectLocal resource enhancementen
dc.subjectSex ratioen
dc.subjectQH301 Biologyen
dc.subjectQL Zoologyen
dc.titleThe ecology of sex explains patterns of helping in arthropod societiesen
dc.typeJournal articleen
dc.description.versionPublisher PDFen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews.School of Biologyen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews.Centre for Biological Diversityen
dc.description.statusPeer revieweden

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