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dc.contributor.authorSchaefer, Tim
dc.contributor.authorSchwab, Tobias
dc.contributor.authorLenk, Simone
dc.contributor.authorGather, Malte Christian
dc.identifier.citationSchaefer , T , Schwab , T , Lenk , S & Gather , M C 2015 , ' White top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes with solution-processed nano-particle scattering layers ' , Applied Physics Letters , vol. 107 , 233301 .
dc.identifier.otherPURE: 241206589
dc.identifier.otherPURE UUID: 9ad50cb3-f231-4e8c-85de-d76f8dbd6828
dc.identifier.otherScopus: 84949239469
dc.identifier.otherORCID: /0000-0002-4857-5562/work/47136433
dc.identifier.otherWOS: 000367010800053
dc.descriptionThe authors are grateful to Novaled GmbH (Dresden) for financial support and material supply. M. C. Gather acknowledges financial support from the Scottish Founding Council through SUPA.en
dc.description.abstractA random scattering approach to enhance light extraction in white top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) is reported. Through solution processing from fluorinated solvents, a nano-particlescattering layer (NPSL) can be deposited directly on top of small molecule OLEDs without affecting their electrical performance. The scattering length for light inside the NPSL is determined from transmission measurements and found to be in agreement with Mie scattering theory. Furthermore, the dependence of the light outcoupling enhancement on electron transport layer thickness is studied. Depending on the electron transport layer thickness, the NPSL enhances the external quantum efficiency of the investigated white OLEDs by between 1.5 and 2.3-fold. For a device structure that has been optimized prior to application of the NPSL, the maximum external quantum efficiency is improved from 4.7% to 7.4% (1.6-fold improvement). In addition, the scattering layer strongly reduces the undesired shift in emission color with viewing angle.
dc.relation.ispartofApplied Physics Lettersen
dc.rights© 2015 AIP Publishing LLC. This work is made available online in accordance with the publisher’s policies. This is the final published version of the work, which was originally published at
dc.subjectOrganic light emitting diodesen
dc.subjectVisible spectraen
dc.subjectLight scatteringen
dc.subjectQC Physicsen
dc.titleWhite top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes with solution-processed nano-particle scattering layersen
dc.typeJournal itemen
dc.description.versionPublisher PDFen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. School of Physics and Astronomyen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. Biomedical Sciences Research Complexen
dc.description.statusPeer revieweden

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