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    • Representations of collective action in Mantua and Parma, c.1000-c.1120 

      Houghton, Robert (University of St Andrews, 2013) - Thesis
      During the 1970s Keller codified a Ständeordnung (social order) in the cities of Italy in the ninth to twelfth centuries dividing political society into three ordines: the capitanei (high nobility), valvassores (low ...