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    • The Caliphate and the Turks, 232-256 / 847-870 : a political study 

      Al-Haideri, Salah Abdul Hadi Mustafa (University of St Andrews, 1979) - Thesis
      Under the Umayyads, Muslims came into direct contact with Turks in their homeland which lay east of Khurasän and Transoxania. However, after the Turks had submitted to the Islamic state, the Caliphs, in particular the ...