Solid phase strategies for the preparation of phosphorus ligand libraries
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Catalysis plays a key role in chemical conversions by making them faster and more selective. Despite its widespread use and decades of academic and industrial research, limited catalyst selectivity and stability still call for major improvements in catalyst performance to meet the demands of a sustainable society. Phosphine ligands are ubiquitous in transition metal chemistry and lead to extremely reactive and versatile homogeneous catalysts. Fast development of tailor-made catalysts and catalyst recovery are key issues in (asymmetric) homogeneous catalysis. Therefore libraries of ligands have to be synthesised and screened in an efficient way, which could be facilitated by Solid Phase Synthesis (SPS). Currently, most polymer bound ligands are anchored to the support after the synthesis in solution. However, the main advantages of synthesising the ligands directly on the polymeric support are not only easy catalyst recycling and product separation, but also the ease of purification during the synthesis steps, namely by simple washing and filtration. The use of SPS is very efficient for high throughput synthesis and screening of ligand libraries, however applications of SPS towards libraries of phosphorus ligands are rare, because the synthetic methodologies are still lacking. Here we present the development of methodologies towards novel immobilised bis(phosphine) ligands synthesised on polystyrene and JandaJel™ resin. By performing the synthesis steps on a solid support, the advantages of SPS are fully utilised. Successful routes have been developed towards immobilised secondary phosphine-boranes, which were versatile synthons to prepare a variety of new polymer-supported (C-chiral) bis(phosphine) ligands. These ligands were then tested for their catalytic activity in rhodium catalysed hydrogenation reactions.
Thesis, PhD Doctor of Philosophy
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