Synthesis, characterisation and adsorption properties of metal-organic frameworks and the structural response to functionalisation and temperature
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The synthesis of a scandium aluminium methylphosphonate ScAl₃(CH₃PO₃)₆ isostructural to the aluminium methylphosphonate AlMePO-α and with permanent microporosity is reported here for the first time. Structural characterisation of three lanthanide bisphosphonate structures (I,II,III) with the light lanthanides and N,N’-piperazine bis-(methylenephosphonic acid) and its 2-methyl and 2,5-dimethyl derivatives is described. The framework of structure type I shows considerable flexibility upon dehydration with a symmetry change from C2/c, a = 23.5864(2) Å, b = 12.1186(2) Å, c = 5.6613(2) Å, β = 93.040(2)˚) in the hydrated state to P2₁/n, a = 21.8361(12) Å, b = 9.3519(4) Å, c = 5.5629(3) Å, β = 96.560(4)˚ after dehydration. This cell volume reduces by 27% on dehydration and is accompanied by a change in the conformation of the piperazine ring from chair to boat configuration. The structures of type I (hydrated and dehydrated) were refined against synchrotron powder X-ray diffraction data. Despite the reversible hydration and flexibility, the structures possess no permanent porosity. Investigation of the solvothermal chemistry of scandium carboxylates identified routes to 7 framework structures 5 of which were previously unreported in the scandium system. Lower temperature solvothermal reactions using terephthalic acid (80 - 140°C using dimethylformamide and diethylformamide) yielded two scandium terephthalates, MIL-88B(Sc) and MIL-101(Sc), identified by laboratory X-ray powder diffraction. Whereas higher temperature (160 – 220°C), reactions gave MIL-53(Sc) and Sc₂BDC₃. Further study with the tri- and tetra-carboxylate linkers, trimesic acid, 3,3’,5,5’-azobenzenetetracarboxylic acid and pyromellitic acid yielded MIL-100(Sc), Sc-ABTC and Sc₄PMA₃ respectively. Structural identification of MIL-100(Sc) and Sc-ABTC was performed by means of X-ray powder diffraction analysis and of Sc₄PMA₃ by single crystal X-ray diffraction. The structure of a small pore scandium terephthalate Sc₂BDC₃ was investigated as a function of temperature and of functionalization. In situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction data, collected on a Sc₂BDC₃ in vacuo, enabled a phase change from orthorhombic Fddd to monoclinic C2/c and the associated structural effects to be observed in detail. The orthorhombic structure displayed a negative thermal expansivity of 2.4 × 10⁻⁵ K⁻¹ over the temperature range 225 – 523 K which Rietveld analysis showed to be derived from carboxylate group rotation. Motion within the framework was studied by ²H wide-line and MAS NMR on deuterated Sc₂BDC₃ indicating π flips can occur in the phenyl rings above 298 K. The effects of functionalization on the Sc₂BDC₃ framework were investigated by reactions using the 2-amino- and 2-nitroterephthalic acid and gave evidence for a strong structural effect resulting from inclusion of the functional groups. The structure of Sc₂BDC₃ and the functionalised derivatives were solved using Rietveld analysis on synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction data. Sc₂(NH₂-BDC)₃ was solved using the orthorhombic Sc₂BDC₃ framework starting model and, over the temperature range studied, stayed orthorhombic Fddd. Sc₂(NO₂-BDC)₃, was shown to be monoclinic C2/c over the same temperature range, a result of the steric effects of the bulky –NO₂ group in a small pore framework. Partial ordering of the functional groups was observed in both Sc₂(NH₂-BDC)₃ and Sc₂(NO₂-BDC)₃. The strength of interaction for the Sc₂(NH₂-BDC)₃ with CO₂ was higher than that of the parent Sc₂BDC₃ due to the strong –NH₂•••CO₂ interaction. Despite the inclusion of a relatively large –NO₂ group along the walls of a channel ~4 Å in diameter the Sc₂(NO₂-BDC)₃ still showed permanent microporosity to CO₂ (2.6 mmol g⁻¹) suggesting that there must be some motion in the -NO₂ group to allow the CO₂ molecules to diffuse through the channels. The scandium analogue of the flexible terephthalate MIL-53, a competitive phase in the synthesis of Sc₂BDC₃, was prepared and characterised by Rietveld analysis on synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction data using a combination of literature structural models and models obtained from single crystal X-ray diffraction experiments. Experimental solid state ⁴⁵Sc, ¹³C and ¹H NMR data combined with NMR calculations on the structural models produced from diffraction analysis were used to identify the hydrated (MIL-53(Sc)-H₂O), calcined (MIL-53(Sc)-CAL) and high temperature (MIL-53(Sc)-HT) structures of MIL-53(Sc). Further to this the 2-nitroterephthalate derivative, MIL-53(Sc)-NO₂, was prepared and characterised using single crystal X-ray diffraction. The adsorptive properties of the parent terephthalate and the functionalised derivative were compared and in both cases showed a breathing behaviour, exemplified by steps in the adsorption isotherms. MIL-53(Sc)-CAL was found to possess a closed pore configuration in the dehydrated state, a previously unreported structural form for the MIL-53 series, and its presence can be observed in the low pressure region of the CO₂ adsorption isotherm as a non-porous plateau. The selectivity and separation properties of two MOFs, the nickel bisphosphonate, STA-12(Ni) and the scandium carboxylate, Sc₂BDC₃ were measured using breakthrough curves on mixtures of CH₄ and CO₂. The results showed both materials to be highly selective in the adsorption of CO₂ over CH₄. Column testing using a PLOT column of STA-12(Ni) and a packed column of Sc₂BDC₃ showed promising preliminary results with STA-12(Ni) displaying effective, baseline separation on low boiling point hydrocarbon mixtures (C1 – C4) while the smaller pore channels of Sc₂BDC₃ were effective in the size selective separation of higher boiling point branched and straight-chain hydrocarbons (C5 – C7).
Thesis, PhD Doctor of Philosophy
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