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dc.contributor.authorHobaiter, Cat
dc.contributor.authorGraham, Kirsty
dc.contributor.authorByrne, Richard W.
dc.identifier.citationHobaiter , C , Graham , K & Byrne , R W 2022 , ' Are ape gestures like words? Outstanding issues in detecting similarities and differences between human language and ape gesture ' , Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences , vol. 377 , no. 1860 .
dc.identifier.otherPURE: 280080801
dc.identifier.otherPURE UUID: be85cbd1-b20b-43ec-a7b3-d1158828f2ff
dc.identifier.otherORCID: /0000-0002-7422-7676/work/117210958
dc.identifier.otherORCID: /0000-0002-3893-0524/work/117210979
dc.identifier.otherORCID: /0000-0001-9862-9373/work/117211059
dc.identifier.otherWOS: 000838044800012
dc.identifier.otherScopus: 85135547268
dc.descriptionK.E.G. and C.H. received funding from the European Union's 8th Framework Programme, Horizon 2020, under grant agreement no. 802719.en
dc.description.abstractOpinion piece: ape gestures are made intentionally, inviting parallels with human language; but how similar are their gestures to words? Here we ask this in three ways, considering: flexibility and ambiguity, first- and second-order intentionality, and usage in interactive exchanges. Many gestures are used to achieve several, often very distinct, goals. Such apparent ambiguity in meaning is potentially disruptive for communication, but—as with human language—situational and interpersonal context may largely resolve the intended meaning. Our evidence for first-order intentional use of gesture is abundant, but how might we establish a case for the second-order intentional use critical to language? Finally, words are rarely used in tidy signal–response sequences but are exchanged in back-and-forth interaction. Do gestures share this property? In this paper, we examine these questions and set out ways in which they can be resolved, incorporating data from wild chimpanzees.
dc.relation.ispartofPhilosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciencesen
dc.rightsCopyright © 2022 The Authors. Open Access. Published by the Royal Society under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, provided the original author and source are credited.en
dc.subjectCommon grounden
dc.subjectEvolution of languageen
dc.subjectQL Zoologyen
dc.titleAre ape gestures like words? Outstanding issues in detecting similarities and differences between human language and ape gestureen
dc.typeJournal articleen
dc.contributor.sponsorEuropean Research Councilen
dc.description.versionPublisher PDFen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. Centre for Social Learning & Cognitive Evolutionen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. School of Psychology and Neuroscienceen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. Institute of Behavioural and Neural Sciencesen
dc.description.statusPeer revieweden

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