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dc.contributor.authorTuteja, Sahib Y.
dc.contributor.authorBlaikie, Andrew
dc.contributor.authorKekunnaya, Ramesh
dc.identifier.citationTuteja , S Y , Blaikie , A & Kekunnaya , R 2021 , ' Identification of amblyogenic risk factors with the Brückner reflex test using the low-cost Arclight direct ophthalmoscope ' , Eye , vol. First Online .
dc.identifier.otherPURE: 271726582
dc.identifier.otherPURE UUID: 16c8eb32-0fc9-4a52-9c73-c18db57fdfb1
dc.identifier.otherORCID: /0000-0001-7913-6872/work/87404247
dc.identifier.otherScopus: 85099033690
dc.identifier.otherWOS: 000605863200008
dc.description.abstractBackground/objectives The Arclight is a novel, low-cost, solar-powered direct ophthalmoscope developed for low resource settings as an alternative to more expensive, conventional devices. The Brückner reflex test (BRT) is a quick and effective means to screen for eye disease and amblyogenic risk factors. This test is however rarely performed in low resource settings due to the lack of access to ophthalmoscopes and trained health care workers. Our aim was to establish the sensitivity and specificity of the BRT when performed by a non-expert using an Arclight and compare to an expert as well as the results of a full clinic workup. Subjects/methods In this prospective, blinded study, 64 patients referred to a paediatric ophthalmology clinic had the BRT performed by a ‘non-expert’ observer (medical student) then an ‘expert’ observer (consultant ophthalmologist). These results were then compared against the ‘gold standard’ outcomes of a full clinical workup. Results BRT screening by the expert observer led to a sensitivity of 75.0% [95% CI: 57.9–86.8%] and a specificity of 90.6% [95% CI: 75.8–96.8%] in picking up media opacity, strabismus, refractive error or a combination of the above. For the non-expert, the sensitivity and specificity were 71.9% [95% CI: 54.6–84.4%] and 84.4% [95% CI: 68.3–93.1%], respectively. Conclusions The Arclight can be effectively used to perform the BRT and identify eye disease and common amblyogenic risk factors. Even when performed by a non-expert the results are highly specific and moderately sensitive. This study consequently offers support for the use of this low-cost ophthalmoscope in the expansion of eye screening by health care workers in low resource settings.
dc.rightsCopyright © The Author(s), under exclusive licence to The Royal College of Ophthalmologists 2020. This work has been made available online in accordance with publisher policies or with permission. Permission for further reuse of this content should be sought from the publisher or the rights holder. This is the author created accepted manuscript following peer review and may differ slightly from the final published version. The final published version of this work is available at
dc.subjectQH426 Geneticsen
dc.subjectRE Ophthalmologyen
dc.titleIdentification of amblyogenic risk factors with the Brückner reflex test using the low-cost Arclight direct ophthalmoscopeen
dc.typeJournal articleen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. Infection and Global Health Divisionen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. School of Medicineen
dc.description.statusPeer revieweden

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