Population-specific social dynamics in chimpanzees
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Understanding intraspecific variation in sociality is essential for characterizing the flexibility and evolution of social systems, yet its study in nonhuman animals is rare. Here, we investigated whether chimpanzees exhibit population-level differences in sociality that cannot be easily explained by differences in genetics or ecology. We compared social proximity and grooming tendencies across four semiwild populations of chimpanzees living in the same ecological environment over three consecutive years, using both linear mixed models and social network analysis. Results indicated temporally stable, population-level differences in dyadic-level sociality. Moreover, group cohesion measures capturing network characteristics beyond dyadic interactions (clustering, modularity, and social differentiation) showed population-level differences consistent with the dyadic indices. Subsequently, we explored whether the observed intraspecific variation in sociality could be attributed to cultural processes by ruling out alternative sources of variation including the influences of ecology, genetics, and differences in population demographics. We conclude that substantial variation in social behavior exists across neighboring populations of chimpanzees and that this variation is in part shaped by cultural processes.
Van Leeuwen , E J C , Cronin , K A & Haun , D B M 2018 , ' Population-specific social dynamics in chimpanzees ' , Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America , vol. 115 , no. 45 , pp. 11393-11400 . https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1722614115
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
© 2018 Published under the PNAS license. This work has been made available online in accordance with the publisher’s policies. This is the author created accepted version manuscript following peer review and as such may differ slightly from the final published version. The final published version of this work is available at https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1722614115
DescriptionE.J.C.v.L. was supported by the European Research Council (Grant Agreement 609819, project Constructing Social Minds: Coordination, Communication, and Cultural Transmission) and the Research Foundation Flanders (FWO).
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