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  • Decentralised leadership in contemporary jihadism: towards a global social movement 

    Bartolo, Romain (Centre for the Study of Terrorism and Political Violence, University of St Andrews, 2011-05-18) - Journal article
    On October 19th 2003, nearly six months after the outset of the invasion of Iraq by US troops, a video was released by al-Qaeda media arm al-Sahab showing Osama bin Laden directly threatening Spain. In his words, Spain, ...