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|Title: ||A study of society in the Anglo-Scottish borders, 1455-1502|
|Authors: ||Cardew, Anne|
|Issue Date: ||1974|
|Abstract: ||The thesis is a detailed descriptive survey of the society of
the Anglo-Scottish borders in the second half of the fifteenth century.
The survey is divided into three sections, the first providing a
background to border society, the second examining the structure of
that society, and the third describing how the society was governed.
As an introduction to the study of border society, the geography
and economy of the frontier region are briefly described; a short
survey of border towns is attempted; and the role of the Church in
border society is examined, although this is mainly confined to a
description of the ecclesiastical institutions in the area.
In analysing the structure of border society in the later fifteenth
century a division is made between, on the one hand, the levels of
society, and, on the other, the interconnections which bound the
border population together. The lower ranks of border society, both
urban and rural, are examined in as uuch detail as is permitted by the
scarcity of surviving evidence. The leading families on each side of
the frontier are described and their role in border society is examined.
Interconnections within border society are investigated from
three aspects: the bond of kinship; connections and ties of dependency
among leading border families; and relationships across the frontier.
The topic of kinship bonds raises the question of the origin of
border surnames, and an attempt is made to contribute to this controversy
by examining the state of development of the surnames by the mid-fifteenth century. Connections between leading border families are
examined under the categories of land-holding relationships, connections
formed through marriage, and bonds based on employment or the more
formal contracts of retainer manrent. Interconnections, so far
as they existed, between English and Scottish borderers are described
as a conclusion to the survey of the ways in which border society was
The final section of the thesis is concerned with the government
of border society. As a means of introduction, the background of the
political relations between the kingdoms of England and Scotland is
established by a detailed analysis of events during the half-century. Following this survey of how the two countries alternated between
truce and open war during the period, an analysis is made or the terms
of the truces signed between 1455 and 1502. This examination of truce
terms, which were mainly concerned with frontier control, leads on to a
survey of the operation of law-enforcement on the borders. The
machine of law-enforcement, involving the imposition of both the international
frontier law control and the national laws of the respective
countries is described, and standards of efficiency among judicial
officers are touched upon.
Aspects of law-enforcement on the borders which are of particular interest are subsequently exanined, and both the
general character and the causes of border lawlessness are discussed.
In the examination of law-enforcement machinery the function of
officials are described, but as a conclusion to the survey of law and
order on the borders the holders of the various offices are investigated.
In the conclusion to the thesis a brief generalised description
is attempted of the characteristics of border people and their society
in the later fifteenth century.|
|Publisher: ||University of St Andrews|
|Appears in Collections:||Mediaeval History Theses|
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