Research@StAndrews
 
The University of St Andrews

Research@StAndrews:FullText >
Chemistry (School of) >
Chemistry >
Chemistry Theses >

Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/10023/2576
This item has been viewed 27 times in the last year. View Statistics

Files in This Item:

File Description SizeFormat
TheFullTextOfThisDocumentIsNotAvailable.pdf2.61 kBAdobe PDFView/Open
Title: Exploring novel functionalities in oxide ion conductors with excess oxygen
Authors: Zhang, Yaoqing
Supervisors: Irvine, John T. S.
Keywords: Green energy
Solid Oxide Fuel Cell
Oxide ion conductor
Functional oxide materials
HRTEM
C12A7
Apatite
Electride
Issue Date: 22-Jun-2011
Abstract: Functional materials, particularly metal oxides, have been the focus of much attention in solid state chemistry for many years and impact every aspect of modern life. The approach adopted in this thesis to access desirable functionality for enhanced fundamental understanding is via modifying existing materials by deploying reducing synthetic procedures. This work spans several groups of inorganic crystalline materials, but is unified by the development of new properties within host compounds of particular relevance to solid oxide fuel cell technology, which allow interstitial oxide ion conduction at elevated temperatures. The Ca₁₂Al₁₄O₃₂e₂ electride was successfully synthesized by replacing the mobile extra-framework oxygen ions with electrons acting as anions. The high concentration of electrons in the C12A7 electride gives rise to an exceptionally high electronic conductivity of up to 245 S cm⁻¹ at room temperature. Making use of the high density of electrons in Ca₁₂Al₁₄O₃₂e₂ electride, the strong N-N bonds in N₂ was found to be broken when heating Ca₁₂Al₁₄O₃₂e₂ in a N₂ atmosphere. A reaction between silicate apatites and the titanium metal yielded another completely new electride material La₉.₀Sr₁.₀(SiO₄)₆O₂.₄e₀.₂ which was found to be a semiconductor. To fully understand the role of oxygen interstitials in silicate apatites, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) was employed as the main technique in probing how the oxygen nonstoichiometry is accommodated at the atomic level. Atomic-resolution imaging of interstitial oxygen in La₉.₀Sr₁.₀(SiO₄)₆O₂.₅ proved to be a success in this thesis. Substitution of oxygen in 2a and interstitial sites with fluoride ions in La[subscript(8+y)]Sr[subscript(2- z)](SiO₄)₆O[subscript(2+(3y-2z)/2)] (0<y<2, 0<z<2) could be an approach to enriching the functionalities in the apatite structure. A wide range of fluoride substitution levels was tolerated in La[subscript(10-x)]Sr[subscript(x)](SiO₄)₆O[subscript(3-1.5x)]F[subscript(2x)] (x= 0.67, 1, 1.5, 2) and AC impedance measurements were found in support of a tentative conclusion that fluoride ions could be mobile in fluorinated apatites. The last part of this thesis was focused on a new class of fast oxide ion conductors based on Ge₅P₆O₂₅ whose performance was superior to both La₉.₀Sr₁.₀(SiO₄)₆O₂.₅ and Ca₁₂Al₁₄O₃₃ in the low temperature range.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10023/2576
Type: Thesis
Publisher: University of St Andrews
Appears in Collections:Chemistry Theses



This item is protected by original copyright

This item is licensed under a Creative Commons License
Creative Commons

Items in DSpace are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.

 

DSpace Software Copyright © 2002-2012  Duraspace - Feedback
For help contact: Digital-Repository@st-andrews.ac.uk | Copyright for this page belongs to St Andrews University Library | Terms and Conditions (Cookies)