DSpace Collection:
http://hdl.handle.net/10023/98
2014-10-21T07:18:08ZExact dimensionality and projections of random self-similar measures and sets
http://hdl.handle.net/10023/5514
Abstract: We study the geometric properties of random multiplicative cascade measures defined on self-similar sets. We show that such measures and their projections and sections are almost surely exact-dimensional, generalizing Feng and Hu's result for self-similar measures. This, together with a compact group extension argument, enables us to generalize Hochman and Shmerkin's theorems on projections of deterministic self-similar measures to these random measures without requiring any separation conditions on the underlying sets. We give applications to self-similar sets and fractal percolation, including new results on projections, C1-images and distance sets.2014-09-01T00:00:00ZFalconer, KennethJin, XiongWe study the geometric properties of random multiplicative cascade measures defined on self-similar sets. We show that such measures and their projections and sections are almost surely exact-dimensional, generalizing Feng and Hu's result for self-similar measures. This, together with a compact group extension argument, enables us to generalize Hochman and Shmerkin's theorems on projections of deterministic self-similar measures to these random measures without requiring any separation conditions on the underlying sets. We give applications to self-similar sets and fractal percolation, including new results on projections, C1-images and distance sets.On the nature of reconnection at a solar coronal null point above a separatrix dome
http://hdl.handle.net/10023/5459
Abstract: Three-dimensional magnetic null points are ubiquitous in the solar corona and in any generic mixed-polarity magnetic field. We consider magnetic reconnection at an isolated coronal null point whose fan field lines form a dome structure. Using analytical and computational models, we demonstrate several features of spine-fan reconnection at such a null, including the fact that substantial magnetic flux transfer from one region of field line connectivity to another can occur. The flux transfer occurs across the current sheet that forms around the null point during spine-fan reconnection, and there is no separator present. Also, flipping of magnetic field lines takes place in a manner similar to that observed in the quasi-separatrix layer or slip-running reconnection.2013-09-10T00:00:00ZPontin, D. I.Priest, E. R.Galsgaard, K.Three-dimensional magnetic null points are ubiquitous in the solar corona and in any generic mixed-polarity magnetic field. We consider magnetic reconnection at an isolated coronal null point whose fan field lines form a dome structure. Using analytical and computational models, we demonstrate several features of spine-fan reconnection at such a null, including the fact that substantial magnetic flux transfer from one region of field line connectivity to another can occur. The flux transfer occurs across the current sheet that forms around the null point during spine-fan reconnection, and there is no separator present. Also, flipping of magnetic field lines takes place in a manner similar to that observed in the quasi-separatrix layer or slip-running reconnection.On magnetic reconnection and flux rope topology in solar flux emergence
http://hdl.handle.net/10023/5393
Abstract: We present an analysis of the formation of atmospheric flux ropes in a magnetohydrodynamic solar flux emergence simulation. The simulation domain ranges from the top of the solar interior to the low corona. A twisted magnetic flux tube emerges from the solar interior and into the atmosphere where it interacts with the ambient magnetic field. By studying the connectivity of the evolving magnetic field, we are able to better understand the process of flux rope formation in the solar atmosphere. In the simulation, two flux ropes are produced as a result of flux emergence. Each has a different evolution resulting in different topological structures. These are determined by plasma flows and magnetic reconnection. As the flux rope is the basic structure of the coronal mass ejection, we discuss the implications of our findings for solar eruptions.2014-02-21T00:00:00ZMacTaggart, DavidHaynes, Andrew LewisWe present an analysis of the formation of atmospheric flux ropes in a magnetohydrodynamic solar flux emergence simulation. The simulation domain ranges from the top of the solar interior to the low corona. A twisted magnetic flux tube emerges from the solar interior and into the atmosphere where it interacts with the ambient magnetic field. By studying the connectivity of the evolving magnetic field, we are able to better understand the process of flux rope formation in the solar atmosphere. In the simulation, two flux ropes are produced as a result of flux emergence. Each has a different evolution resulting in different topological structures. These are determined by plasma flows and magnetic reconnection. As the flux rope is the basic structure of the coronal mass ejection, we discuss the implications of our findings for solar eruptions.Observations of a hybrid double-streamer/pseudostreamer in the solar corona
http://hdl.handle.net/10023/5318
Abstract: We report on the first observation of a single hybrid magnetic structure that contains both a pseudostreamer and a double streamer. This structure was originally observed by the SWAP instrument on board the PROBA2 satellite between 2013 May 5 and 10. It consists of a pair of filament channels near the south pole of the Sun. On the western edge of the structure, the magnetic morphology above the filaments is that of a side-by-side double streamer, with open field between the two channels. On the eastern edge, the magnetic morphology is that of a coronal pseudostreamer without the central open field. We investigated this structure with multiple observations and modeling techniques. We describe the topology and dynamic consequences of such a unified structure.
Description: D.B.S. and L.A.R. acknowledge support from the Belgian Federal Science Policy Office (BELSPO) through the ESA-PRODEX program, grant No. 4000103240. S.J.P. acknowledges the financial support of the Isle of Man Government.2014-05-20T00:00:00ZRachmeler, L.A.Platten, S.J.Bethge, C.Seaton, D.B.Yeates, A.R.We report on the first observation of a single hybrid magnetic structure that contains both a pseudostreamer and a double streamer. This structure was originally observed by the SWAP instrument on board the PROBA2 satellite between 2013 May 5 and 10. It consists of a pair of filament channels near the south pole of the Sun. On the western edge of the structure, the magnetic morphology above the filaments is that of a side-by-side double streamer, with open field between the two channels. On the eastern edge, the magnetic morphology is that of a coronal pseudostreamer without the central open field. We investigated this structure with multiple observations and modeling techniques. We describe the topology and dynamic consequences of such a unified structure.Space exploration using parallel orbits : a study in parallel symbolic computing
http://hdl.handle.net/10023/5303
Abstract: Orbit enumerations represent an important class of mathematical algorithms which is widely used in computational discrete mathematics. In this paper, we present a new shared-memory implementation of a generic Orbit skeleton in the GAP computer algebra system [5]. By defining a skeleton, we are easily able to capture a wide variety of concrete Orbit enumerations that can exploit the same underlying parallel implementation. We also propose a generic cost model for predicting the speedups that our Orbit skeleton will deliver for a given application on a given parallel system. We demonstrate the scalability of our implementation on a 64-core shared-memory machine. Our results show that we are able to obtain good speedups over sequential GAP programs (up to 25.27 on 64 cores).2013-09-01T00:00:00ZJanjic, VladimirBrown, Christopher MarkNeunhoeffer, MaxHammond, KevinLinton, Stephen AlexanderLoidl, Hans-WolfgangOrbit enumerations represent an important class of mathematical algorithms which is widely used in computational discrete mathematics. In this paper, we present a new shared-memory implementation of a generic Orbit skeleton in the GAP computer algebra system [5]. By defining a skeleton, we are easily able to capture a wide variety of concrete Orbit enumerations that can exploit the same underlying parallel implementation. We also propose a generic cost model for predicting the speedups that our Orbit skeleton will deliver for a given application on a given parallel system. We demonstrate the scalability of our implementation on a 64-core shared-memory machine. Our results show that we are able to obtain good speedups over sequential GAP programs (up to 25.27 on 64 cores).Catastrophe versus instability for the eruption of a toroidal solar magnetic flux rope
http://hdl.handle.net/10023/5291
Abstract: The onset of a solar eruption is formulated here as either a magnetic catastrophe or as an instability. Both start with the same equation of force balance governing the underlying equilibria. Using a toroidal flux rope in an external bipolar or quadrupolar field as a model for the current-carrying flux, we demonstrate the occurrence of a fold catastrophe by loss of equilibrium for several representative evolutionary sequences in the stable domain of parameter space. We verify that this catastrophe and the torus instability occur at the same point; they are thus equivalent descriptions for the onset condition of solar eruptions.
Description: B.K. acknowledges support by the Chinese Academy of Sciences under grant No. 2012T1J0017. He also acknowledges support by the DFG, the STFC, and the NSF. J.L.'s work was supported by 973 Program grants 2013CB815103 and 2011CB811403, NSFC grants 11273055, and 11333007, and CAS grant KJCX2-EW-T07 to Yunnan Observatory. E.R.P. is grateful to the Leverhulme Trust for financial support. The contribution of T.T. was supported by NASA's HTP, LWS, and SR&T programs and by NSF.2014-07-01T00:00:00ZKliem, B.Lin, J.Forbes, T. G.Priest, E. R.Toeroek, T.The onset of a solar eruption is formulated here as either a magnetic catastrophe or as an instability. Both start with the same equation of force balance governing the underlying equilibria. Using a toroidal flux rope in an external bipolar or quadrupolar field as a model for the current-carrying flux, we demonstrate the occurrence of a fold catastrophe by loss of equilibrium for several representative evolutionary sequences in the stable domain of parameter space. We verify that this catastrophe and the torus instability occur at the same point; they are thus equivalent descriptions for the onset condition of solar eruptions.The solar cycle variation of topological structures in the global solar corona
http://hdl.handle.net/10023/5271
Abstract: Context. The complicated distribution of magnetic flux across the solar photosphere results in a complex web of coronal magnetic field structures. To understand this complexity, the magnetic skeleton of the coronal field can be calculated. The skeleton highlights the (separatrix) surfaces that divide the field into topologically distinct regions, allowing open-field regions on the solar surface to be located. Furthermore, separatrix surfaces and their intersections with other separatrix surfaces (i.e., separators) are important likely energy release sites. Aims. The aim of this paper is to investigate, throughout the solar cycle, the nature of coronal magnetic-field topologies that arise under the potential-field source-surface approximation. In particular, we characterise the typical global fields at solar maximum and minimum. Methods. Global magnetic fields are extrapolated from observed Kitt Peak and SOLIS synoptic magnetograms, from Carrington rotations 1645 to 2144, using the potential-field source-surface model. This allows the variations in the coronal skeleton to be studied over three solar cycles. Results. The main building blocks which make up magnetic fields are identified and classified according to the nature of their separatrix surfaces. The magnetic skeleton reveals that, at solar maximum, the global coronal field involves a multitude of topological structures at all latitudes criss-crossing throughout the atmosphere. Many open-field regions exist originating anywhere on the photosphere. At solar minimum, the coronal topology is heavily influenced by the solar magnetic dipole. A strong dipole results in a simple large-scale structure involving just two large polar open-field regions, but, at short radial distances between ± 60° latitude, the small-scale topology is complex. If the solar magnetic dipole if weak, as in the recent minimum, then the low-latitude quiet-sun magnetic fields may be globally significant enough to create many disconnected open-field regions between ± 60° latitude, in addition to the two polar open-field regions.
Description: S.J.P. acknowledges financial support from the Isle of Man Government. E.R.P. is grateful to the Leverhulme Trust for his emeritus fellowship. The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Commission’s Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under the grant agreement SWIFF (project No. 263340, www.swiff.eu).2014-05-01T00:00:00ZPlatten, S.J.Parnell, C.E.Haynes, A.L.Priest, E.R.MacKay, D.H.Context. The complicated distribution of magnetic flux across the solar photosphere results in a complex web of coronal magnetic field structures. To understand this complexity, the magnetic skeleton of the coronal field can be calculated. The skeleton highlights the (separatrix) surfaces that divide the field into topologically distinct regions, allowing open-field regions on the solar surface to be located. Furthermore, separatrix surfaces and their intersections with other separatrix surfaces (i.e., separators) are important likely energy release sites. Aims. The aim of this paper is to investigate, throughout the solar cycle, the nature of coronal magnetic-field topologies that arise under the potential-field source-surface approximation. In particular, we characterise the typical global fields at solar maximum and minimum. Methods. Global magnetic fields are extrapolated from observed Kitt Peak and SOLIS synoptic magnetograms, from Carrington rotations 1645 to 2144, using the potential-field source-surface model. This allows the variations in the coronal skeleton to be studied over three solar cycles. Results. The main building blocks which make up magnetic fields are identified and classified according to the nature of their separatrix surfaces. The magnetic skeleton reveals that, at solar maximum, the global coronal field involves a multitude of topological structures at all latitudes criss-crossing throughout the atmosphere. Many open-field regions exist originating anywhere on the photosphere. At solar minimum, the coronal topology is heavily influenced by the solar magnetic dipole. A strong dipole results in a simple large-scale structure involving just two large polar open-field regions, but, at short radial distances between ± 60° latitude, the small-scale topology is complex. If the solar magnetic dipole if weak, as in the recent minimum, then the low-latitude quiet-sun magnetic fields may be globally significant enough to create many disconnected open-field regions between ± 60° latitude, in addition to the two polar open-field regions.Free products in R. Thompson’s group V
http://hdl.handle.net/10023/5237
Abstract: We investigate some product structures in R. Thompson's group $ V$, primarily by studying the topological dynamics associated with $ V$'s action on the Cantor set C. We draw attention to the class D(V,C) of groups which have embeddings as demonstrative subgroups of V whose class can be used to assist in forming various products. Note that D(V,C) contains all finite groups, the free group on two generators, and Q/Z, and is closed under passing to subgroups and under taking direct products of any member by any finite member. If G≤V and H ∈ D(V,C), then G~H embeds into V. Finally, if G, H ∈ D(V,C), then G*H embeds in V. Using a dynamical approach, we also show the perhaps surprising result that Z2 * Z does not embed in V, even though V has many embedded copies of Z2 and has many embedded copies of free products of various pairs of its subgroups.2013-11-01T00:00:00ZBleak, Collin PatrickSalazar-Diaz, OlgaWe investigate some product structures in R. Thompson's group $ V$, primarily by studying the topological dynamics associated with $ V$'s action on the Cantor set C. We draw attention to the class D(V,C) of groups which have embeddings as demonstrative subgroups of V whose class can be used to assist in forming various products. Note that D(V,C) contains all finite groups, the free group on two generators, and Q/Z, and is closed under passing to subgroups and under taking direct products of any member by any finite member. If G≤V and H ∈ D(V,C), then G~H embeds into V. Finally, if G, H ∈ D(V,C), then G*H embeds in V. Using a dynamical approach, we also show the perhaps surprising result that Z2 * Z does not embed in V, even though V has many embedded copies of Z2 and has many embedded copies of free products of various pairs of its subgroups.Indeterminacy and instability in Petschek reconnection
http://hdl.handle.net/10023/5234
Abstract: We explain two puzzling aspects of Petschek's model for fast reconnection. One is its failure to occur in plasma simulations with uniform resistivity. The other is its inability to provide anything more than an upper limit for the reconnection rate. We have found that previously published analytical solutions based on Petschek's model are structurally unstable if the electrical resistivity is uniform. The structural instability is associated with the presence of an essential singularity at the X-line that is unphysical. By requiring that such a singularity does not exist, we obtain a formula that predicts a specific rate of reconnection. For uniform resistivity, reconnection can only occur at the slow, Sweet-Parker rate. For nonuniform resistivity, reconnection can occur at a much faster rate provided that the resistivity profile is not too flat near the X-line. If this condition is satisfied, then the scale length of the nonuniformity determines the reconnection rate.
Description: This work was supported by NSF Grants ATM-0734032 and AGS-0962698, NASA Grants NNX08AG44G and NNX-10AC04G to the University of New Hampshire, and subcontract SVT-7702 from the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory in support of their NASA Grants NNM07AA02C and NNM07AB07C. D. B. Seaton was supported by PRODEX Grant C90193 managed by the European Space Agency in collaboration with the Belgian Federal Science Policy Office, and by Grant FP7/2007-2013 from the European Commission's Seventh Framework Program under the agreement eHeroes (Project No. 284461). Additional support was provided by the Leverhulme Trust to E. R. Priest.2013-05-13T00:00:00ZForbes, T.G.Priest, E.R.Seaton, D.B.Litvinenko, Y.E.We explain two puzzling aspects of Petschek's model for fast reconnection. One is its failure to occur in plasma simulations with uniform resistivity. The other is its inability to provide anything more than an upper limit for the reconnection rate. We have found that previously published analytical solutions based on Petschek's model are structurally unstable if the electrical resistivity is uniform. The structural instability is associated with the presence of an essential singularity at the X-line that is unphysical. By requiring that such a singularity does not exist, we obtain a formula that predicts a specific rate of reconnection. For uniform resistivity, reconnection can only occur at the slow, Sweet-Parker rate. For nonuniform resistivity, reconnection can occur at a much faster rate provided that the resistivity profile is not too flat near the X-line. If this condition is satisfied, then the scale length of the nonuniformity determines the reconnection rate.The effect of slip length on vortex rebound from a rigid boundary
http://hdl.handle.net/10023/5232
Abstract: The problem of a dipole incident normally on a rigid boundary, for moderate to large Reynolds numbers, has recently been treated numerically using a volume penalisation method by Nguyen van yen, Farge, and Schneider [Phys. Rev. Lett.106, 184502 (2011)]. Their results indicate that energy dissipating structures persist in the inviscid limit. They found that the use of penalisation methods intrinsically introduces some slip at the boundary wall, where the slip approaches zero as the Reynolds number goes to infinity, so reducing to the no-slip case in this limit. We study the same problem, for both no-slip and partial slip cases, using compact differences on a Chebyshev grid in the direction normal to the wall and Fourier methods in the direction along the wall. We find that for the no-slip case there is no indication of the persistence of energy dissipating structures in the limit as viscosity approaches zero and that this also holds for any fixed slip length. However, when the slip length is taken to vary inversely with Reynolds number then the results of Nguyen van yen et al. are regained. It therefore appears that the prediction that energy dissipating structures persist in the inviscid limit follows from the two limits of wall slip length going to zero, and viscosity going to zero, not being treated independently in their use of the volume penalisation method.2013-09-23T00:00:00ZSutherland, D.Macaskill, C.Dritschel, D.G.The problem of a dipole incident normally on a rigid boundary, for moderate to large Reynolds numbers, has recently been treated numerically using a volume penalisation method by Nguyen van yen, Farge, and Schneider [Phys. Rev. Lett.106, 184502 (2011)]. Their results indicate that energy dissipating structures persist in the inviscid limit. They found that the use of penalisation methods intrinsically introduces some slip at the boundary wall, where the slip approaches zero as the Reynolds number goes to infinity, so reducing to the no-slip case in this limit. We study the same problem, for both no-slip and partial slip cases, using compact differences on a Chebyshev grid in the direction normal to the wall and Fourier methods in the direction along the wall. We find that for the no-slip case there is no indication of the persistence of energy dissipating structures in the limit as viscosity approaches zero and that this also holds for any fixed slip length. However, when the slip length is taken to vary inversely with Reynolds number then the results of Nguyen van yen et al. are regained. It therefore appears that the prediction that energy dissipating structures persist in the inviscid limit follows from the two limits of wall slip length going to zero, and viscosity going to zero, not being treated independently in their use of the volume penalisation method.Progress towards numerical and experimental simulations of fusion relevant beam instabilities
http://hdl.handle.net/10023/5186
Abstract: In certain plasmas, non-thermal electron distributions can produce instabilities. These instabilities may be useful or potentially disruptive. Therefore the study of these instabilities is of importance in a variety of fields including fusion science and astrophysics. Following on from previous work conducted at the University of Strathclyde on the cyclotron resonance maser instability that was relevant to astrophysical radiowave generation, further instabilities are being investigated. Particular instabilities of interest are the anomalous Doppler instability which can occur in magnetic confinement fusion plasmas and the two-stream instability that is of importance in fast-ignition inertial confinement fusion. To this end, computational simulations have been undertaken to investigate the behaviour of both the anomalous Doppler and two-stream instabilities with the goal of designing an experiment to observe these behaviours in a laboratory.2014-01-01T00:00:00ZKing, M.Bryson, R.Ronald, K.Cairns, R. A.McConville, S. L.Speirs, D. C.Phelps, A. D. R.Bingham, R.Gillespie, K. M.Cross, A. W.Vorgul, I.Trines, R.In certain plasmas, non-thermal electron distributions can produce instabilities. These instabilities may be useful or potentially disruptive. Therefore the study of these instabilities is of importance in a variety of fields including fusion science and astrophysics. Following on from previous work conducted at the University of Strathclyde on the cyclotron resonance maser instability that was relevant to astrophysical radiowave generation, further instabilities are being investigated. Particular instabilities of interest are the anomalous Doppler instability which can occur in magnetic confinement fusion plasmas and the two-stream instability that is of importance in fast-ignition inertial confinement fusion. To this end, computational simulations have been undertaken to investigate the behaviour of both the anomalous Doppler and two-stream instabilities with the goal of designing an experiment to observe these behaviours in a laboratory.Scaled Experiment to Investigate Auroral Kilometric Radiation Mechanisms in the Presence of Background Electrons
http://hdl.handle.net/10023/5185
Abstract: Auroral Kilometric Radiation (AKR) emissions occur at frequencies similar to 300kHz polarised in the X-mode with efficiencies similar to 1-2% [1,2] in the auroral density cavity in the polar regions of the Earth's magnetosphere, a region of low density plasma similar to 3200km above the Earth's surface, where electrons are accelerated down towards the Earth whilst undergoing magnetic compression. As a result of this magnetic compression the electrons acquire a horseshoe distribution function in velocity space. Previous theoretical studies have predicted that this distribution is capable of driving the cyclotron maser instability. To test this theory a scaled laboratory experiment was constructed to replicate this phenomenon in a controlled environment, [3-5] whilst 2D and 3D simulations are also being conducted to predict the experimental radiation power and mode, [6-9]. The experiment operates in the microwave frequency regime and incorporates a region of increasing magnetic field as found at the Earth's pole using magnet solenoids to encase the cylindrical interaction waveguide through which an initially rectilinear electron beam (12A) was accelerated by a 75keV pulse. Experimental results showed evidence of the formation of the horseshoe distribution function. The radiation was produced in the near cut-off TE01 mode, comparable with X-mode characteristics, at 4.42GHz. Peak microwave output power was measured similar to 35kW and peak efficiency of emission similar to 2%, [3]. A Penning trap was constructed and inserted into the interaction waveguide to enable generation of a background plasma which would lead to closer comparisons with the magnetospheric conditions. Initial design and measurements are presented showing the principle features of the new geometry.2014-01-01T00:00:00ZMcConville, S. L.Ronald, K.Speirs, D. C.Gillespie, K. M.Phelps, A. D. R.Cross, A. W.Bingham, R.Robertson, C. W.Whyte, C. G.He, W.King, M.Bryson, R.Vorgul, I.Cairns, R. A.Kellett, B. J.Auroral Kilometric Radiation (AKR) emissions occur at frequencies similar to 300kHz polarised in the X-mode with efficiencies similar to 1-2% [1,2] in the auroral density cavity in the polar regions of the Earth's magnetosphere, a region of low density plasma similar to 3200km above the Earth's surface, where electrons are accelerated down towards the Earth whilst undergoing magnetic compression. As a result of this magnetic compression the electrons acquire a horseshoe distribution function in velocity space. Previous theoretical studies have predicted that this distribution is capable of driving the cyclotron maser instability. To test this theory a scaled laboratory experiment was constructed to replicate this phenomenon in a controlled environment, [3-5] whilst 2D and 3D simulations are also being conducted to predict the experimental radiation power and mode, [6-9]. The experiment operates in the microwave frequency regime and incorporates a region of increasing magnetic field as found at the Earth's pole using magnet solenoids to encase the cylindrical interaction waveguide through which an initially rectilinear electron beam (12A) was accelerated by a 75keV pulse. Experimental results showed evidence of the formation of the horseshoe distribution function. The radiation was produced in the near cut-off TE01 mode, comparable with X-mode characteristics, at 4.42GHz. Peak microwave output power was measured similar to 35kW and peak efficiency of emission similar to 2%, [3]. A Penning trap was constructed and inserted into the interaction waveguide to enable generation of a background plasma which would lead to closer comparisons with the magnetospheric conditions. Initial design and measurements are presented showing the principle features of the new geometry.3D PiC code investigations of Auroral Kilometric Radiation mechanisms
http://hdl.handle.net/10023/5184
Abstract: Efficient (similar to 1%) electron cyclotron radio emissions are known to originate in the X mode from regions of locally depleted plasma in the Earths polar magnetosphere. These emissions are commonly referred to as the Auroral Kilometric Radiation (AKR). AKR occurs naturally in these polar regions where electrons are accelerated by electric fields into the increasing planetary magnetic dipole. Here conservation of the magnetic moment converts axial to rotational momentum forming a horseshoe distribution in velocity phase space. This distribution is unstable to cyclotron emission with radiation emitted in the X-mode. Initial studies were conducted in the form of 2D PiC code simulations [1] and a scaled laboratory experiment that was constructed to reproduce the mechanism of AKR. As studies progressed, 3D PiC code simulations were conducted to enable complete investigation of the complex interaction dimensions. A maximum efficiency of 1.25% is predicted from these simulations in the same mode and frequency as measured in the experiment. This is also consistent with geophysical observations and the predictions of theory.2014-01-01T00:00:00ZGillespie, K. M.McConville, S. L.Speirs, D. C.Ronald, K.Phelps, A. D. R.Bingham, R.Cross, A. W.Robertson, C. W.Whyte, C. G.He, W.Vorgul, I.Cairns, R. A.Kellett, B. J.Efficient (similar to 1%) electron cyclotron radio emissions are known to originate in the X mode from regions of locally depleted plasma in the Earths polar magnetosphere. These emissions are commonly referred to as the Auroral Kilometric Radiation (AKR). AKR occurs naturally in these polar regions where electrons are accelerated by electric fields into the increasing planetary magnetic dipole. Here conservation of the magnetic moment converts axial to rotational momentum forming a horseshoe distribution in velocity phase space. This distribution is unstable to cyclotron emission with radiation emitted in the X-mode. Initial studies were conducted in the form of 2D PiC code simulations [1] and a scaled laboratory experiment that was constructed to reproduce the mechanism of AKR. As studies progressed, 3D PiC code simulations were conducted to enable complete investigation of the complex interaction dimensions. A maximum efficiency of 1.25% is predicted from these simulations in the same mode and frequency as measured in the experiment. This is also consistent with geophysical observations and the predictions of theory.Numerical simulation of unconstrained cyclotron resonant maser emission
http://hdl.handle.net/10023/5183
Abstract: When a mainly rectilinear electron beam is subject to significant magnetic compression, conservation of magnetic moment results in the formation of a horseshoe shaped velocity distribution. It has been shown that such a distribution is unstable to cyclotron emission and may be responsible for the generation of Auroral Kilometric Radiation (AKR) an intense rf emission sourced at high altitudes in the terrestrial auroral magnetosphere. PiC code simulations have been undertaken to investigate the dynamics of the cyclotron emission process in the absence of cavity boundaries with particular consideration of the spatial growth rate, spectral output and rf conversion efficiency. Computations reveal that a well-defined cyclotron emission process occurs albeit with a low spatial growth rate compared to waveguide bounded simulations. The rf output is near perpendicular to the electron beam with a slight backward-wave character reflected in the spectral output with a well defined peak at 2.68GHz, just below the relativistic electron cyclotron frequency. The corresponding rf conversion efficiency of 1.1% is comparable to waveguide bounded simulations and consistent with the predictions of kinetic theory that suggest efficient, spectrally well defined radiation emission can be obtained from an electron horseshoe distribution in the absence of radiation boundaries.2014-01-01T00:00:00ZSpeirs, D. C.Gillespie, K. M.Ronald, K.McConville, S. L.Phelps, A. D. R.Cross, A. W.Bingham, R.Kellett, B. J.Cairns, R. A.Vorgul, I.When a mainly rectilinear electron beam is subject to significant magnetic compression, conservation of magnetic moment results in the formation of a horseshoe shaped velocity distribution. It has been shown that such a distribution is unstable to cyclotron emission and may be responsible for the generation of Auroral Kilometric Radiation (AKR) an intense rf emission sourced at high altitudes in the terrestrial auroral magnetosphere. PiC code simulations have been undertaken to investigate the dynamics of the cyclotron emission process in the absence of cavity boundaries with particular consideration of the spatial growth rate, spectral output and rf conversion efficiency. Computations reveal that a well-defined cyclotron emission process occurs albeit with a low spatial growth rate compared to waveguide bounded simulations. The rf output is near perpendicular to the electron beam with a slight backward-wave character reflected in the spectral output with a well defined peak at 2.68GHz, just below the relativistic electron cyclotron frequency. The corresponding rf conversion efficiency of 1.1% is comparable to waveguide bounded simulations and consistent with the predictions of kinetic theory that suggest efficient, spectrally well defined radiation emission can be obtained from an electron horseshoe distribution in the absence of radiation boundaries.Laminar shocks in high power laser plasma interactions
http://hdl.handle.net/10023/5180
Abstract: We propose a theory to describe laminar ion sound structures in a collisionless plasma. Reflection of a small fraction of the upstream ions converts the well known ion acoustic soliton into a structure with a steep potential gradient upstream and with downstream oscillations. The theory provides a simple interpretation of results dating back more than forty years but, more importantly, is shown to provide an explanation for recent observations on laser produced plasmas relevant to inertial fusion and to ion acceleration. (C) 2014 AIP Publishing LLC.2014-02-01T00:00:00ZCairns, R. A.Bingham, R.Norreys, P.Trines, R.We propose a theory to describe laminar ion sound structures in a collisionless plasma. Reflection of a small fraction of the upstream ions converts the well known ion acoustic soliton into a structure with a steep potential gradient upstream and with downstream oscillations. The theory provides a simple interpretation of results dating back more than forty years but, more importantly, is shown to provide an explanation for recent observations on laser produced plasmas relevant to inertial fusion and to ion acceleration. (C) 2014 AIP Publishing LLC.Effect of collisions on amplification of laser beams by Brillouin scattering in plasmas
http://hdl.handle.net/10023/5173
Abstract: We report on particle in cell simulations of energy transfer between a laser pump beam and a counter-propagating seed beam using the Brillouin scattering process in uniform plasma including collisions. The results presented show that the ion acoustic waves excited through naturally occurring Brillouin scattering of the pump field are preferentially damped without affecting the driven Brillouin scattering process resulting from the beating of the pump and seed fields together. We find that collisions, including the effects of Landau damping, allow for a more efficient transfer of energy between the laser beams, and a significant reduction in the amount of seed pre-pulse produced.
Description: Authors KH, RT, DCS, RAC, RB were supported by EPSRC grant EP/G04239X/1.2013-10-01T00:00:00ZHumphrey, K. A.Trines, R. M. G. M.Fiuza, F.Speirs, D. C.Norreys, P.Cairns, R. A.Silva, L. O.Bingham, R.We report on particle in cell simulations of energy transfer between a laser pump beam and a counter-propagating seed beam using the Brillouin scattering process in uniform plasma including collisions. The results presented show that the ion acoustic waves excited through naturally occurring Brillouin scattering of the pump field are preferentially damped without affecting the driven Brillouin scattering process resulting from the beating of the pump and seed fields together. We find that collisions, including the effects of Landau damping, allow for a more efficient transfer of energy between the laser beams, and a significant reduction in the amount of seed pre-pulse produced.Beyond sum-free sets in the natural numbers
http://hdl.handle.net/10023/4986
Abstract: For an interval [1,N]⊆N, sets S⊆[1,N] with the property that |{(x,y)∈S2:x+y∈S}|=0, known as sum-free sets, have attracted considerable attention. In this paper, we generalize this notion by considering r(S)=|{(x,y)∈S2:x+y∈S}|, and analyze its behaviour as S ranges over the subsets of [1,N]. We obtain a comprehensive description of the spectrum of attainable r-values, constructive existence results and structural characterizations for sets attaining extremal and near-extremal values.2014-02-07T00:00:00ZHuczynska, SophieFor an interval [1,N]⊆N, sets S⊆[1,N] with the property that |{(x,y)∈S2:x+y∈S}|=0, known as sum-free sets, have attracted considerable attention. In this paper, we generalize this notion by considering r(S)=|{(x,y)∈S2:x+y∈S}|, and analyze its behaviour as S ranges over the subsets of [1,N]. We obtain a comprehensive description of the spectrum of attainable r-values, constructive existence results and structural characterizations for sets attaining extremal and near-extremal values.On the probability of generating a monolithic group
http://hdl.handle.net/10023/4626
Abstract: A group L is primitive monolithic if L has a unique minimal normal subgroup, N , and trivial Frattini subgroup. By PL,N(k) we denote the conditional probability that k randomly chosen elements of L generate L , given that they project onto generators for L/N. In this article we show that PL,N(k) is controlled by PY,S(2), where N≅Sr and Y is a 2-generated almost simple group with socle S that is contained in the normalizer in L of the first direct factor of N . Information aboutPL,N(k) for L primitive monolithic yields various types of information about the generation of arbitrary finite and profinite groups.
Description: This research was supported through EPSRC grant EP/I03582X/1. The APC was paid through RCUK open access block grant funds.2014-06-01T00:00:00ZDetomi, EloisaLucchini, AndreaRoney-Dougal, Colva MaryA group L is primitive monolithic if L has a unique minimal normal subgroup, N , and trivial Frattini subgroup. By PL,N(k) we denote the conditional probability that k randomly chosen elements of L generate L , given that they project onto generators for L/N. In this article we show that PL,N(k) is controlled by PY,S(2), where N≅Sr and Y is a 2-generated almost simple group with socle S that is contained in the normalizer in L of the first direct factor of N . Information aboutPL,N(k) for L primitive monolithic yields various types of information about the generation of arbitrary finite and profinite groups.Generalized dimensions of images of measures under Gaussian processes
http://hdl.handle.net/10023/4319
Abstract: We show that for certain Gaussian random processes and fields X:RN→Rd, Dq(μx) = min {d, 1/α Dq (μ)} a.s., for an index α which depends on Hölder properties and strong local nondeterminism of X, where q>1, where Dq denotes generalized q-dimension μX is the image of the measure μ under X. In particular this holds for index-α fractional Brownian motion, for fractional Riesz–Bessel motions and for certain infinity scale fractional Brownian motions.
Description: 26 pages2014-02-15T00:00:00ZFalconer, KennethXiao, YiminWe show that for certain Gaussian random processes and fields X:RN→Rd, Dq(μx) = min {d, 1/α Dq (μ)} a.s., for an index α which depends on Hölder properties and strong local nondeterminism of X, where q>1, where Dq denotes generalized q-dimension μX is the image of the measure μ under X. In particular this holds for index-α fractional Brownian motion, for fractional Riesz–Bessel motions and for certain infinity scale fractional Brownian motions.Inhomogeneous parabolic equations on unbounded metric measure spaces
http://hdl.handle.net/10023/4061
Abstract: We study the inhomogeneous semilinear parabolic equation ut = Δu + up + f(x), with source term f independent of time and subject to f(x) ≥ 0 and with u(0, x) = φ(x) ≥ 0, for the very general setting of a metric measure space. By establishing Harnack-type inequalities in time t and some powerful estimates, we give sufficient conditions for non-existence, local existence and global existence of weak solutions, depending on the value of p relative to a critical exponent.2012-10-01T00:00:00ZFalconer, Kenneth JohnHu, JiaxinSun, YuhuaWe study the inhomogeneous semilinear parabolic equation ut = Δu + up + f(x), with source term f independent of time and subject to f(x) ≥ 0 and with u(0, x) = φ(x) ≥ 0, for the very general setting of a metric measure space. By establishing Harnack-type inequalities in time t and some powerful estimates, we give sufficient conditions for non-existence, local existence and global existence of weak solutions, depending on the value of p relative to a critical exponent.Strong renewal theorems and Lyapunov spectra for alpha-Farey and alpha-Luroth systems
http://hdl.handle.net/10023/3933
Abstract: In this paper, we introduce and study the alpha-Farey map and its associated jump transformation, the alpha-Luroth map, for an arbitrary countable partition alpha of the unit interval with atoms which accumulate only at the origin. These maps represent linearized generalizations of the Farey map and the Gauss map from elementary number theory. First, a thorough analysis of some of their topological and ergodic theoretical properties is given, including establishing exactness for both types of these maps. The first main result then is to establish weak and strong renewal laws for what we have called alpha-sum-level sets for the alpha-Luroth map. Similar results have previously been obtained for the Farey map and the Gauss map by using infinite ergodic theory. In this respect, a side product of the paper is to allow for greater transparency of some of the core ideas of infinite ergodic theory. The second remaining result is to obtain a complete description of the Lyapunov spectra of the alpha-Farey map and the alpha-Luroth map in terms of the thermodynamical formalism. We show how to derive these spectra and then give various examples which demonstrate the diversity of their behaviours in dependence on the chosen partition alpha.2012-06-01T00:00:00ZKesseboehmer, MarcMunday, SaraStratmann, Bernd O.In this paper, we introduce and study the alpha-Farey map and its associated jump transformation, the alpha-Luroth map, for an arbitrary countable partition alpha of the unit interval with atoms which accumulate only at the origin. These maps represent linearized generalizations of the Farey map and the Gauss map from elementary number theory. First, a thorough analysis of some of their topological and ergodic theoretical properties is given, including establishing exactness for both types of these maps. The first main result then is to establish weak and strong renewal laws for what we have called alpha-sum-level sets for the alpha-Luroth map. Similar results have previously been obtained for the Farey map and the Gauss map by using infinite ergodic theory. In this respect, a side product of the paper is to allow for greater transparency of some of the core ideas of infinite ergodic theory. The second remaining result is to obtain a complete description of the Lyapunov spectra of the alpha-Farey map and the alpha-Luroth map in terms of the thermodynamical formalism. We show how to derive these spectra and then give various examples which demonstrate the diversity of their behaviours in dependence on the chosen partition alpha.Dimension and measure for generic continuous images
http://hdl.handle.net/10023/3902
Abstract: We consider the Banach space consisting of continuous functions from an arbitrary uncountable compact metric space, X, into R-n. The key question is 'what is the generic dimension of f(X)?' and we consider two different approaches to answering it: Baire category and prevalence. In the Baire category setting we prove that typically the packing and upper box dimensions are as large as possible, n, but find that the behaviour of the Hausdorff, lower box and topological dimensions is considerably more subtle. In fact, they are typically equal to the minimum of n and the topological dimension of X. We also study, the typical Hausdorff and packing measures of f (X) and, in particular, give necessary and sufficient conditions for them to be zero, positive and finite, or infinite. It is interesting to compare the Baire category results with results in the prevalence setting. As such we also discuss a result of Dougherty on the prevalent topological dimension of f (X) and give some simple applications concerning the prevalent dimensions of graphs of real-valued continuous functions on compact metric spaces, allowing us to extend a recent result of Bayart and Heurteaux.
Description: This work is supported by EPSRC Doctoral Training Grants2013-01-01T00:00:00ZBalka, RichardFarkas, AbelFraser, Jonathan M.Hyde, James T.We consider the Banach space consisting of continuous functions from an arbitrary uncountable compact metric space, X, into R-n. The key question is 'what is the generic dimension of f(X)?' and we consider two different approaches to answering it: Baire category and prevalence. In the Baire category setting we prove that typically the packing and upper box dimensions are as large as possible, n, but find that the behaviour of the Hausdorff, lower box and topological dimensions is considerably more subtle. In fact, they are typically equal to the minimum of n and the topological dimension of X. We also study, the typical Hausdorff and packing measures of f (X) and, in particular, give necessary and sufficient conditions for them to be zero, positive and finite, or infinite. It is interesting to compare the Baire category results with results in the prevalence setting. As such we also discuss a result of Dougherty on the prevalent topological dimension of f (X) and give some simple applications concerning the prevalent dimensions of graphs of real-valued continuous functions on compact metric spaces, allowing us to extend a recent result of Bayart and Heurteaux.Multistable processes and localizability
http://hdl.handle.net/10023/3560
Abstract: We use characteristic functions to construct alpha-multistable measures and integrals, where the measures behave locally like stable measures, but with the stability index alpha(x) varying with x. This enables us to construct alpha-multistable processes on R, that is processes whose scaling limit at time t is an alpha(t)-stable process. We present several examples of such multistable processes and examine their localisability.2012-01-01T00:00:00ZFalconer, Kenneth JohnLiu, LiningWe use characteristic functions to construct alpha-multistable measures and integrals, where the measures behave locally like stable measures, but with the stability index alpha(x) varying with x. This enables us to construct alpha-multistable processes on R, that is processes whose scaling limit at time t is an alpha(t)-stable process. We present several examples of such multistable processes and examine their localisability.Generating transformation semigroups using endomorphisms of preorders, graphs, and tolerances
http://hdl.handle.net/10023/3383
Abstract: Let ΩΩ be the semigroup of all mappings of a countably infinite set Ω. If U and V are subsemigroups of ΩΩ, then we write U≈V if there exists a finite subset F of ΩΩ such that the subsemigroup generated by U and F equals that generated by V and F. The relative rank of U in ΩΩ is the least cardinality of a subset A of ΩΩ such that the union of U and A generates ΩΩ. In this paper we study the notions of relative rank and the equivalence ≈ for semigroups of endomorphisms of binary relations on Ω. The semigroups of endomorphisms of preorders, bipartite graphs, and tolerances on Ω are shown to lie in two equivalence classes under ≈. Moreover such semigroups have relative rank 0, 1, 2, or d in ΩΩ where d is the minimum cardinality of a dominating family for NN. We give examples of preorders, bipartite graphs, and tolerances on Ω where the relative ranks of their endomorphism semigroups in ΩΩ are 0, 1, 2, and d. We show that the endomorphism semigroups of graphs, in general, fall into at least four classes under ≈ and that there exist graphs where the relative rank of the endomorphism semigroup is 2ℵ0.2010-09-01T00:00:00ZMitchell, James DavidMorayne, MichalPeresse, Yann HamonQuick, MartynLet ΩΩ be the semigroup of all mappings of a countably infinite set Ω. If U and V are subsemigroups of ΩΩ, then we write U≈V if there exists a finite subset F of ΩΩ such that the subsemigroup generated by U and F equals that generated by V and F. The relative rank of U in ΩΩ is the least cardinality of a subset A of ΩΩ such that the union of U and A generates ΩΩ. In this paper we study the notions of relative rank and the equivalence ≈ for semigroups of endomorphisms of binary relations on Ω. The semigroups of endomorphisms of preorders, bipartite graphs, and tolerances on Ω are shown to lie in two equivalence classes under ≈. Moreover such semigroups have relative rank 0, 1, 2, or d in ΩΩ where d is the minimum cardinality of a dominating family for NN. We give examples of preorders, bipartite graphs, and tolerances on Ω where the relative ranks of their endomorphism semigroups in ΩΩ are 0, 1, 2, and d. We show that the endomorphism semigroups of graphs, in general, fall into at least four classes under ≈ and that there exist graphs where the relative rank of the endomorphism semigroup is 2ℵ0.Every group is a maximal subgroup of the free idempotent generated semigroup over a band
http://hdl.handle.net/10023/3342
Abstract: Given an arbitrary group G we construct a semigroup of idempotents (band) BG with the property that the free idempotent generated semigroup over BG has a maximal subgroup isomorphic to G. If G is finitely presented then BG is finite. This answers several questions from recent papers in the area.2013-05-01T00:00:00ZDolinka, IRuskuc, NikGiven an arbitrary group G we construct a semigroup of idempotents (band) BG with the property that the free idempotent generated semigroup over BG has a maximal subgroup isomorphic to G. If G is finitely presented then BG is finite. This answers several questions from recent papers in the area.On disjoint unions of finitely many copies of the free monogenic semigroup
http://hdl.handle.net/10023/3341
Abstract: Every semigroup which is a finite disjoint union of copies of the free monogenic semigroup (natural numbers under addition) is finitely presented and residually finite.2013-08-01T00:00:00ZAbughazalah, NabilahRuskuc, NikEvery semigroup which is a finite disjoint union of copies of the free monogenic semigroup (natural numbers under addition) is finitely presented and residually finite.Ideals and finiteness conditions for subsemigroups
http://hdl.handle.net/10023/3335
Abstract: In this paper we consider a number of finiteness conditions for semigroups related to their ideal structure, and ask whether such conditions are preserved by sub- or supersemigroups with finite Rees or Green index. Specific properties under consideration include stability, D=J and minimal conditions on ideals.2014-01-01T00:00:00ZGray, Robert DuncanMaltcev, VictorD. Mitchell, J.Ruskuc, N.In this paper we consider a number of finiteness conditions for semigroups related to their ideal structure, and ask whether such conditions are preserved by sub- or supersemigroups with finite Rees or Green index. Specific properties under consideration include stability, D=J and minimal conditions on ideals.Attractors of directed graph IFSs that are not standard IFS attractors and their Hausdorff measure
http://hdl.handle.net/10023/3237
Abstract: For directed graph iterated function systems (IFSs) defined on R, we prove that a class of 2-vertex directed graph IFSs have attractors that cannot be the attractors of standard (1-vertex directed graph) IFSs, with or without separation conditions. We also calculate their exact Hausdorff measure. Thus we are able to identify a new class of attractors for which the exact Hausdorff measure is known.
Description: "GCB was supported by an EPSRC Doctoral Training Grant whilst undertaking this work"2013-01-01T00:00:00ZBoore, GraemeFalconer, Kenneth JohnFor directed graph iterated function systems (IFSs) defined on R, we prove that a class of 2-vertex directed graph IFSs have attractors that cannot be the attractors of standard (1-vertex directed graph) IFSs, with or without separation conditions. We also calculate their exact Hausdorff measure. Thus we are able to identify a new class of attractors for which the exact Hausdorff measure is known.Growth of generating sets for direct powers of classical algebraic structures
http://hdl.handle.net/10023/3058
Abstract: For an algebraic structure A denote by d(A) the smallest size of a generating set for A, and let d(A)=(d(A),d(A2),d(A3),…), where An denotes a direct power of A. In this paper we investigate the asymptotic behaviour of the sequence d(A) when A is one of the classical structures—a group, ring, module, algebra or Lie algebra. We show that if A is finite then d(A) grows either linearly or logarithmically. In the infinite case constant growth becomes another possibility; in particular, if A is an infinite simple structure belonging to one of the above classes then d(A) is eventually constant. Where appropriate we frame our exposition within the general theory of congruence permutable varieties.2010-08-01T00:00:00ZQuick, MartynRuskuc, NikFor an algebraic structure A denote by d(A) the smallest size of a generating set for A, and let d(A)=(d(A),d(A2),d(A3),…), where An denotes a direct power of A. In this paper we investigate the asymptotic behaviour of the sequence d(A) when A is one of the classical structures—a group, ring, module, algebra or Lie algebra. We show that if A is finite then d(A) grows either linearly or logarithmically. In the infinite case constant growth becomes another possibility; in particular, if A is an infinite simple structure belonging to one of the above classes then d(A) is eventually constant. Where appropriate we frame our exposition within the general theory of congruence permutable varieties.Green index in semigroups : generators, presentations and automatic structures
http://hdl.handle.net/10023/2760
Abstract: The Green index of a subsemigroup T of a semigroup S is given by counting strong orbits in the complement S n T under the natural actions of T on S via right and left multiplication. This partitions the complement S nT into T-relative H -classes, in the sense of Wallace, and with each such class there is a naturally associated group called the relative Schützenberger group. If the Rees index ΙS n TΙ is finite, T also has finite Green index in S. If S is a group and T a subgroup then T has finite Green index in S if and only if it has finite group index in S. Thus Green index provides a common generalisation of Rees index and group index. We prove a rewriting theorem which shows how generating sets for S may be used to obtain generating sets for T and the Schützenberger groups, and vice versa. We also give a method for constructing a presentation for S from given presentations of T and the Schützenberger groups. These results are then used to show that several important properties are preserved when passing to finite Green index subsemigroups or extensions, including: finite generation, solubility of the word problem, growth type, automaticity (for subsemigroups), finite presentability (for extensions) and finite Malcev presentability (in the case of group-embeddable semigroups).2012-01-01T00:00:00ZCain, A.J.Gray, RRuskuc, NikThe Green index of a subsemigroup T of a semigroup S is given by counting strong orbits in the complement S n T under the natural actions of T on S via right and left multiplication. This partitions the complement S nT into T-relative H -classes, in the sense of Wallace, and with each such class there is a naturally associated group called the relative Schützenberger group. If the Rees index ΙS n TΙ is finite, T also has finite Green index in S. If S is a group and T a subgroup then T has finite Green index in S if and only if it has finite group index in S. Thus Green index provides a common generalisation of Rees index and group index. We prove a rewriting theorem which shows how generating sets for S may be used to obtain generating sets for T and the Schützenberger groups, and vice versa. We also give a method for constructing a presentation for S from given presentations of T and the Schützenberger groups. These results are then used to show that several important properties are preserved when passing to finite Green index subsemigroups or extensions, including: finite generation, solubility of the word problem, growth type, automaticity (for subsemigroups), finite presentability (for extensions) and finite Malcev presentability (in the case of group-embeddable semigroups).The visible part of plane self-similar sets
http://hdl.handle.net/10023/2756
Abstract: Given a compact subset F of R2, the visible part VθF of F from direction θ is the set of x in F such that the half-line from x in direction θ intersects F only at x. It is suggested that if dimH F ≥ 1 then dimH VθF = 1 for almost all θ , where dimH denotes Hausdorff dimension. We conrm this when F is a self-similar set satisfying the convex open set condition and such that the orthogonal projection of F onto every line is an interval. In particular the underlying similarities may involve arbitrary rotations and F need not be connected.
Description: JMF was supported by an EPSRC grant whilst undertaking this work.2013-01-01T00:00:00ZFalconer, Kenneth JohnFraser, Jonathan MacdonaldGiven a compact subset F of R2, the visible part VθF of F from direction θ is the set of x in F such that the half-line from x in direction θ intersects F only at x. It is suggested that if dimH F ≥ 1 then dimH VθF = 1 for almost all θ , where dimH denotes Hausdorff dimension. We conrm this when F is a self-similar set satisfying the convex open set condition and such that the orthogonal projection of F onto every line is an interval. In particular the underlying similarities may involve arbitrary rotations and F need not be connected.Substitution-closed pattern classes
http://hdl.handle.net/10023/2149
Abstract: The substitution closure of a pattern class is the class of all permutations obtained by repeated substitution. The principal pattern classes (those defined by a single restriction) whose substitution closure can be defined by a finite number of restrictions are classied by listing them as a set of explicit families.2011-02-01T00:00:00ZAtkinson, M.D.Ruskuc, NikSmith, RThe substitution closure of a pattern class is the class of all permutations obtained by repeated substitution. The principal pattern classes (those defined by a single restriction) whose substitution closure can be defined by a finite number of restrictions are classied by listing them as a set of explicit families.Automatic presentations and semigroup constructions
http://hdl.handle.net/10023/2148
Abstract: An automatic presentation for a relational structure is, informally, an abstract representation of the elements of that structure by means of a regular language such that the relations can all be recognized by finite automata. A structure admitting an automatic presentation is said to be FA-presentable. This paper studies the interaction of automatic presentations and certain semigroup constructions, namely: direct products, free products, finite Rees index extensions and subsemigroups, strong semilattices of semigroups, Rees matrix semigroups, Bruck-Reilly extensions, zero-direct unions, semidirect products, wreath products, ideals, and quotient semigroups. For each case, the closure of the class of FA-presentable semigroups under that construction is considered, as is the question of whether the FA-presentability of the semigroup obtained from such a construction implies the FA-presentability of the original semigroup[s]. Classifications are also given of the FA-presentable finitely generated Clifford semigroups, completely simple semigroups, and completely 0-simple semigroups.2010-08-01T00:00:00ZCain, Alan J.Oliver, GrahamRuskuc, NikThomas, Richard M.An automatic presentation for a relational structure is, informally, an abstract representation of the elements of that structure by means of a regular language such that the relations can all be recognized by finite automata. A structure admitting an automatic presentation is said to be FA-presentable. This paper studies the interaction of automatic presentations and certain semigroup constructions, namely: direct products, free products, finite Rees index extensions and subsemigroups, strong semilattices of semigroups, Rees matrix semigroups, Bruck-Reilly extensions, zero-direct unions, semidirect products, wreath products, ideals, and quotient semigroups. For each case, the closure of the class of FA-presentable semigroups under that construction is considered, as is the question of whether the FA-presentability of the semigroup obtained from such a construction implies the FA-presentability of the original semigroup[s]. Classifications are also given of the FA-presentable finitely generated Clifford semigroups, completely simple semigroups, and completely 0-simple semigroups.Automatic presentations for semigroups
http://hdl.handle.net/10023/2147
Abstract: This paper applies the concept of FA-presentable structures to semigroups. We give a complete classification of the finitely generated FA-presentable cancellative semigroups: namely, a finitely generated cancellative semigroup is FA-presentable if and only if it is a subsemigroup of a virtually abelian group. We prove that all finitely generated commutative semigroups are FA-presentable. We give a complete list of FA-presentable one-relation semigroups and compare the classes of FA-presentable semigroups and automatic semigroups. (C) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Description: Special Issue: 2nd International Conference on Language and Automata Theory and Applications (LATA 2008)2009-11-01T00:00:00ZCain, Alan JamesOliver, GrahamRuskuc, NikThomas, Richard M.This paper applies the concept of FA-presentable structures to semigroups. We give a complete classification of the finitely generated FA-presentable cancellative semigroups: namely, a finitely generated cancellative semigroup is FA-presentable if and only if it is a subsemigroup of a virtually abelian group. We prove that all finitely generated commutative semigroups are FA-presentable. We give a complete list of FA-presentable one-relation semigroups and compare the classes of FA-presentable semigroups and automatic semigroups. (C) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.On residual finiteness of direct products of algebraic systems
http://hdl.handle.net/10023/2146
Abstract: It is well known that if two algebraic structures A and B are residually finite then so is their direct product. Here we discuss the converse of this statement. It is of course true if A and B contain idempotents, which covers the case of groups, rings, etc. We prove that the converse also holds for semigroups even though they need not have idempotents. We also exhibit three examples which show that the converse does not hold in general.2009-09-01T00:00:00ZGray, R.Ruskuc, NikIt is well known that if two algebraic structures A and B are residually finite then so is their direct product. Here we discuss the converse of this statement. It is of course true if A and B contain idempotents, which covers the case of groups, rings, etc. We prove that the converse also holds for semigroups even though they need not have idempotents. We also exhibit three examples which show that the converse does not hold in general.The Bergman property for semigroups
http://hdl.handle.net/10023/2145
Abstract: In this article, we study the Bergman property for semigroups and the associated notions of cofinality and strong cofinality. A large part of the paper is devoted to determining when the Bergman property, and the values of the cofinality and strong cofinality, can be passed from semigroups to subsemigroups and vice versa. Numerous examples, including many important semigroups from the literature, are given throughout the paper. For example, it is shown that the semigroup of all mappings on an infinite set has the Bergman property but that its finitary power semigroup does not; the symmetric inverse semigroup on an infinite set and its finitary power semigroup have the Bergman property; the Baer-Levi semigroup does not have the Bergman property.2009-08-01T00:00:00ZMaltcev, V.Mitchell, J. D.Ruskuc, N.In this article, we study the Bergman property for semigroups and the associated notions of cofinality and strong cofinality. A large part of the paper is devoted to determining when the Bergman property, and the values of the cofinality and strong cofinality, can be passed from semigroups to subsemigroups and vice versa. Numerous examples, including many important semigroups from the literature, are given throughout the paper. For example, it is shown that the semigroup of all mappings on an infinite set has the Bergman property but that its finitary power semigroup does not; the symmetric inverse semigroup on an infinite set and its finitary power semigroup have the Bergman property; the Baer-Levi semigroup does not have the Bergman property.Green index and finiteness conditions for semigroups
http://hdl.handle.net/10023/2144
Abstract: Let S be a semigroup and let T be a subsemigroup of S. Then T acts on S by left and by right multiplication. If the complement S \ T has finitely many strong orbits by both these actions we say that T has finite Green index in S. This notion of finite index encompasses subgroups of finite index in groups, and also subsemigroups of finite Rees index (complement). Therefore, the question of S and T inheriting various finiteness conditions from each other arises. In this paper we consider and resolve this question for the following finiteness conditions: finiteness, residual finiteness, local finiteness, periodicity, having finitely many right ideals, and having finitely many idempotents. (c) 2008 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.2008-10-15T00:00:00ZGray, Robert DuncanRuskuc, NikLet S be a semigroup and let T be a subsemigroup of S. Then T acts on S by left and by right multiplication. If the complement S \ T has finitely many strong orbits by both these actions we say that T has finite Green index in S. This notion of finite index encompasses subgroups of finite index in groups, and also subsemigroups of finite Rees index (complement). Therefore, the question of S and T inheriting various finiteness conditions from each other arises. In this paper we consider and resolve this question for the following finiteness conditions: finiteness, residual finiteness, local finiteness, periodicity, having finitely many right ideals, and having finitely many idempotents. (c) 2008 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.Properties of the subsemigroups of the bicyclic monoid
http://hdl.handle.net/10023/2142
Abstract: In this paper we study some properties of the subsemigroups of the bicyclic monoid B, by using a recent description of its subsemigroups. We start by giving necessary and sufficient conditions for a subsemigroup to be finitely generated. Then we show that all finitely generated subsemigroups are automatic and finitely presented. Finally we prove that a subsemigroup of B is residually finite if and only if it does not contain a copy of B.2008-06-01T00:00:00ZDescalco, L.Ruskuc, NikIn this paper we study some properties of the subsemigroups of the bicyclic monoid B, by using a recent description of its subsemigroups. We start by giving necessary and sufficient conditions for a subsemigroup to be finitely generated. Then we show that all finitely generated subsemigroups are automatic and finitely presented. Finally we prove that a subsemigroup of B is residually finite if and only if it does not contain a copy of B.Pattern classes of permutations via bijections between linearly ordered sets
http://hdl.handle.net/10023/2140
Abstract: A pattern class is a set of permutations closed under pattern involvement or, equivalently, defined by certain subsequence avoidance conditions. Any pattern class X which is atomic, i.e. indecomposable as a union of proper subclasses, has a representation as the set of subpermutations of a bijection between two countable (or finite) linearly ordered sets A and B. Concentrating on the situation where A is arbitrary and B = N, we demonstrate how the order-theoretic properties of A determine the structure of X and we establish results about independence, contiguousness and subrepresentations for classes admitting multiple representations of this form.2008-01-01T00:00:00ZHuczynska, SophieRuskuc, NikolaA pattern class is a set of permutations closed under pattern involvement or, equivalently, defined by certain subsequence avoidance conditions. Any pattern class X which is atomic, i.e. indecomposable as a union of proper subclasses, has a representation as the set of subpermutations of a bijection between two countable (or finite) linearly ordered sets A and B. Concentrating on the situation where A is arbitrary and B = N, we demonstrate how the order-theoretic properties of A determine the structure of X and we establish results about independence, contiguousness and subrepresentations for classes admitting multiple representations of this form.Cancellative and Malcev presentations for finite Rees index subsemigroups and extensions
http://hdl.handle.net/10023/2138
Abstract: It is known that, for semigroups, the property of admitting a finite presentation is preserved on passing to subsemigroups and extensions of finite Rees index. The present paper shows that the same holds true for Malcev, cancellative, left-cancellative and right-cancellative presentations. (A Malcev (respectively, cancellative, left-cancellative, right-cancellative) presentation is a presentation of a special type that can be used to define any group-embeddable (respectively, cancellative, left-cancellative, right-cancellative) semigroup.).2008-02-01T00:00:00ZCain, Alan JamesRobertson, Edmund FrederickRuskuc, NikIt is known that, for semigroups, the property of admitting a finite presentation is preserved on passing to subsemigroups and extensions of finite Rees index. The present paper shows that the same holds true for Malcev, cancellative, left-cancellative and right-cancellative presentations. (A Malcev (respectively, cancellative, left-cancellative, right-cancellative) presentation is a presentation of a special type that can be used to define any group-embeddable (respectively, cancellative, left-cancellative, right-cancellative) semigroup.).Growth rates for subclasses of Av(321)
http://hdl.handle.net/10023/2137
Abstract: Pattern classes which avoid 321 and other patterns are shown to have the same growth rates as similar (but strictly larger) classes obtained by adding articulation points to any or all of the other patterns. The method of proof is to show that the elements of the latter classes can be represented as bounded merges of elements of the original class, and that the bounded merge construction does not change growth rates.2010-10-22T00:00:00ZAlbert, M.H.Atkinson, M.D.Brignall, RRuskuc, NikSmith, RWest, JPattern classes which avoid 321 and other patterns are shown to have the same growth rates as similar (but strictly larger) classes obtained by adding articulation points to any or all of the other patterns. The method of proof is to show that the elements of the latter classes can be represented as bounded merges of elements of the original class, and that the bounded merge construction does not change growth rates.On generators and presentations of semidirect products in inverse semigroups
http://hdl.handle.net/10023/2136
Abstract: In this paper we prove two main results. The first is a necessary and sufficient condition for a semidirect product of a semilattice by a group to be finitely generated. The second result is a necessary and sufficient condition for such a semidirect product to be finitely presented.2009-06-01T00:00:00ZDombi, Erzsebet RitaRuskuc, NikIn this paper we prove two main results. The first is a necessary and sufficient condition for a semidirect product of a semilattice by a group to be finitely generated. The second result is a necessary and sufficient condition for such a semidirect product to be finitely presented.Maximal subgroups of free idempotent-generated semigroups over the full transformation monoid
http://hdl.handle.net/10023/2134
Abstract: Let Tn be the full transformation semigroup of all mappings from the set {1, . . . , n} to itself under composition. Let E = E(Tn) denote the set of idempotents of Tn and let e ∈ E be an arbitrary idempotent satisfying |im (e)| = r ≤ n − 2. We prove that the maximal subgroup of the free idempotent generated semigroup over E containing e is isomorphic to the symmetric group Sr.2012-05-01T00:00:00ZGray, RRuskuc, NikLet Tn be the full transformation semigroup of all mappings from the set {1, . . . , n} to itself under composition. Let E = E(Tn) denote the set of idempotents of Tn and let e ∈ E be an arbitrary idempotent satisfying |im (e)| = r ≤ n − 2. We prove that the maximal subgroup of the free idempotent generated semigroup over E containing e is isomorphic to the symmetric group Sr.Generators and relations for subsemigroups via boundaries in Cayley graphs
http://hdl.handle.net/10023/2131
Abstract: Given a finitely generated semigroup S and subsemigroup T of S we define the notion of the boundary of T in S which, intuitively, describes the position of T inside the left and right Cayley graphs of S. We prove that if S is finitely generated and T has a finite boundary in S then T is finitely generated. We also prove that if S is finitely presented and T has a finite boundary in S then T is finitely presented. Several corollaries and examples are given.2011-11-01T00:00:00ZGray, RRuskuc, NikGiven a finitely generated semigroup S and subsemigroup T of S we define the notion of the boundary of T in S which, intuitively, describes the position of T inside the left and right Cayley graphs of S. We prove that if S is finitely generated and T has a finite boundary in S then T is finitely generated. We also prove that if S is finitely presented and T has a finite boundary in S then T is finitely presented. Several corollaries and examples are given.On the growth of generating sets for direct powers of semigroups
http://hdl.handle.net/10023/2129
Abstract: For a semigroup S its d-sequence is d(S) = (d1, d2, d3, . . .), where di is the smallest number of elements needed to generate the ith direct power of S. In this paper we present a number of facts concerning the type of growth d(S) can have when S is an infinite semigroup, comparing them with the corresponding known facts for infinite groups, and also for finite groups and semigroups.2012-01-01T00:00:00ZHyde, James ThomasLoughlin, NicholasQuick, MartynRuskuc, NikWallis, AlistairFor a semigroup S its d-sequence is d(S) = (d1, d2, d3, . . .), where di is the smallest number of elements needed to generate the ith direct power of S. In this paper we present a number of facts concerning the type of growth d(S) can have when S is an infinite semigroup, comparing them with the corresponding known facts for infinite groups, and also for finite groups and semigroups.On maximal subgroups of free idempotent generated semigroups
http://hdl.handle.net/10023/2128
Abstract: We prove the following results: (1) Every group is a maximal subgroup of some free idempotent generated semigroup. (2) Every finitely presented group is a maximal subgroup of some free idempotent generated semigroup arising from a finite semigroup. (3) Every group is a maximal subgroup of some free regular idempotent generated semigroup. (4) Every finite group is a maximal subgroup of some free regular idempotent generated semigroup arising from a finite regular semigroup. As a technical prerequisite for these results we establish a general presentation for the maximal subgroups based on a Reidemeister–Schreier type rewriting.2012-01-01T00:00:00ZGray, RRuskuc, NikWe prove the following results: (1) Every group is a maximal subgroup of some free idempotent generated semigroup. (2) Every finitely presented group is a maximal subgroup of some free idempotent generated semigroup arising from a finite semigroup. (3) Every group is a maximal subgroup of some free regular idempotent generated semigroup. (4) Every finite group is a maximal subgroup of some free regular idempotent generated semigroup arising from a finite regular semigroup. As a technical prerequisite for these results we establish a general presentation for the maximal subgroups based on a Reidemeister–Schreier type rewriting.On convex permutations
http://hdl.handle.net/10023/2000
Abstract: A selection of points drawn from a convex polygon, no two with the same vertical or horizontal coordinate, yields a permutation in a canonical fashion. We characterise and enumerate those permutations which arise in this manner and exhibit some interesting structural properties of the permutation class they form. We conclude with a permutation analogue of the celebrated Happy Ending Problem.2011-05-01T00:00:00ZAlbert, M.H.Linton, Stephen AlexanderRuskuc, NikVatter, VWaton, SA selection of points drawn from a convex polygon, no two with the same vertical or horizontal coordinate, yields a permutation in a canonical fashion. We characterise and enumerate those permutations which arise in this manner and exhibit some interesting structural properties of the permutation class they form. We conclude with a permutation analogue of the celebrated Happy Ending Problem.Presentations of inverse semigroups, their kernels and extensions
http://hdl.handle.net/10023/1998
Abstract: Let S be an inverse semigroup and let π:S→T be a surjective homomorphism with kernel K. We show how to obtain a presentation for K from a presentation for S, and vice versa. We then investigate the relationship between the properties of S, K and T, focusing mainly on finiteness conditions. In particular we consider finite presentability, solubility of the word problem, residual finiteness, and the homological finiteness property FPn. Our results extend several classical results from combinatorial group theory concerning group extensions to inverse semigroups. Examples are also provided that highlight the differences with the special case of groups.
Description: "Part of this work was done while Gray was an EPSRC Postdoctoral Research Fellow at the University of St Andrews, Scotland"2011-06-01T00:00:00ZCarvalho, C.A.Gray, RRuskuc, NikLet S be an inverse semigroup and let π:S→T be a surjective homomorphism with kernel K. We show how to obtain a presentation for K from a presentation for S, and vice versa. We then investigate the relationship between the properties of S, K and T, focusing mainly on finiteness conditions. In particular we consider finite presentability, solubility of the word problem, residual finiteness, and the homological finiteness property FPn. Our results extend several classical results from combinatorial group theory concerning group extensions to inverse semigroups. Examples are also provided that highlight the differences with the special case of groups.Simple extensions of combinatorial structures
http://hdl.handle.net/10023/1997
Abstract: An interval in a combinatorial structure R is a set I of points which are related to every point in R \ I in the same way. A structure is simple if it has no proper intervals. Every combinatorial structure can be expressed as an inflation of a simple structure by structures of smaller sizes — this is called the substitution (or modular) decomposition. In this paper we prove several results of the following type: An arbitrary structure S of size n belonging to a class C can be embedded into a simple structure from C by adding at most f (n) elements. We prove such results when C is the class of all tournaments, graphs, permutations, posets, digraphs, oriented graphs and general relational structures containing a relation of arity greater than 2. The function f (n) in these cases is 2, ⌈log2(n + 1)⌉, ⌈(n + 1)/2⌉, ⌈(n + 1)/2⌉, ⌈log4(n + 1)⌉, ⌈log3(n + 1)⌉ and 1, respectively. In each case these bounds are the best possible.2011-07-01T00:00:00ZBrignall, RRuskuc, NikVatter, VAn interval in a combinatorial structure R is a set I of points which are related to every point in R \ I in the same way. A structure is simple if it has no proper intervals. Every combinatorial structure can be expressed as an inflation of a simple structure by structures of smaller sizes — this is called the substitution (or modular) decomposition. In this paper we prove several results of the following type: An arbitrary structure S of size n belonging to a class C can be embedded into a simple structure from C by adding at most f (n) elements. We prove such results when C is the class of all tournaments, graphs, permutations, posets, digraphs, oriented graphs and general relational structures containing a relation of arity greater than 2. The function f (n) in these cases is 2, ⌈log2(n + 1)⌉, ⌈(n + 1)/2⌉, ⌈(n + 1)/2⌉, ⌈log4(n + 1)⌉, ⌈log3(n + 1)⌉ and 1, respectively. In each case these bounds are the best possible.The horizon problem for prevalent surfaces
http://hdl.handle.net/10023/1956
Abstract: We investigate the box dimensions of the horizon of a fractal surface defined by a function $f \in C[0,1]^2 $. In particular we show that a prevalent surface satisfies the `horizon property', namely that the box dimension of the horizon is one less than that of the surface. Since a prevalent surface has box dimension 3, this does not give us any information about the horizon of surfaces of dimension strictly less than 3. To examine this situation we introduce spaces of functions with surfaces of upper box dimension at most $\alpha$, for $\alpha \in [2,3)$. In this setting the behaviour of the horizon is more subtle. We construct a prevalent subset of these spaces where the lower box dimension of the horizon lies between the dimension of the surface minus one and 2. We show that in the sense of prevalence these bounds are as tight as possible if the spaces are defined purely in terms of dimension. However, if we work in Lipschitz spaces, the horizon property does indeed hold for prevalent functions. Along the way, we obtain a range of properties of box dimensions of sums of functions.
Description: JMF was supported by an EPSRC Doctoral Training Grant whilst undertaking this work.2011-01-01T00:00:00ZFalconer, Kenneth JohnFraser, Jonathan MacdonaldWe investigate the box dimensions of the horizon of a fractal surface defined by a function $f \in C[0,1]^2 $. In particular we show that a prevalent surface satisfies the `horizon property', namely that the box dimension of the horizon is one less than that of the surface. Since a prevalent surface has box dimension 3, this does not give us any information about the horizon of surfaces of dimension strictly less than 3. To examine this situation we introduce spaces of functions with surfaces of upper box dimension at most $\alpha$, for $\alpha \in [2,3)$. In this setting the behaviour of the horizon is more subtle. We construct a prevalent subset of these spaces where the lower box dimension of the horizon lies between the dimension of the surface minus one and 2. We show that in the sense of prevalence these bounds are as tight as possible if the spaces are defined purely in terms of dimension. However, if we work in Lipschitz spaces, the horizon property does indeed hold for prevalent functions. Along the way, we obtain a range of properties of box dimensions of sums of functions.Primitive free cubics with specified norm and trace
http://hdl.handle.net/10023/1615
Abstract: The existence of a primitive free (normal) cubic x(3) ax(2) + cx b over a finite field F with arbitrary specified values of a (not equal 0) and b (primitive) is guaranteed. This is the most delicate case of a general existence theorem whose proof is thereby completed.2003-08-01T00:00:00ZHuczynska, SophieCohen, SDThe existence of a primitive free (normal) cubic x(3) ax(2) + cx b over a finite field F with arbitrary specified values of a (not equal 0) and b (primitive) is guaranteed. This is the most delicate case of a general existence theorem whose proof is thereby completed.Subsemigroups of virtually free groups : finite Malcev presentations and testing for freeness
http://hdl.handle.net/10023/1561
Abstract: This paper shows that, given a finite subset X of a finitely generated virtually free group F, the freeness of the subsemigroup of F generated by X can be tested algorithmically. (A group is virtually free if it contains a free subgroup of finite index.) It is then shown that every finitely generated subsemigroup, of F has a finite Malcev presentation (a type of semigroup presentation which can be used to define any semigroup that embeds in a group), and that such a presentation can be effectively found from any finite generating set.2006-07-01T00:00:00ZCain, AJRobertson, Edmund FrederickRuskuc, NikolaThis paper shows that, given a finite subset X of a finitely generated virtually free group F, the freeness of the subsemigroup of F generated by X can be tested algorithmically. (A group is virtually free if it contains a free subgroup of finite index.) It is then shown that every finitely generated subsemigroup, of F has a finite Malcev presentation (a type of semigroup presentation which can be used to define any semigroup that embeds in a group), and that such a presentation can be effectively found from any finite generating set.Generating the full transformation semigroup using order preserving mappings
http://hdl.handle.net/10023/1553
Abstract: For a linearly ordered set X we consider the relative rank of the semigroup of all order preserving mappings O-X on X modulo the full transformation semigroup Ex. In other words, we ask what is the smallest cardinality of a set A of mappings such that <O-X boolean OR A> = T-X. When X is countably infinite or well-ordered (of arbitrary cardinality) we show that this number is one, while when X = R (the set of real numbers) it is uncountable.2003-09-01T00:00:00ZHiggins, PMMitchell, James DavidRuskuc, NikolaFor a linearly ordered set X we consider the relative rank of the semigroup of all order preserving mappings O-X on X modulo the full transformation semigroup Ex. In other words, we ask what is the smallest cardinality of a set A of mappings such that <O-X boolean OR A> = T-X. When X is countably infinite or well-ordered (of arbitrary cardinality) we show that this number is one, while when X = R (the set of real numbers) it is uncountable.On defining groups efficiently without using inverses
http://hdl.handle.net/10023/1442
Abstract: Let G be a group, and let <A \ R> be a finite group presentation for G with \R\ greater than or equal to \A\. Then there exists a, finite semigroup, presentation <B \ Q> for G such that \Q\ - \B\ = \R\ - \A\. Moreover, B is either the same generating set or else it contains one additional generator.2002-07-01T00:00:00ZCampbell, Colin MatthewMitchell, James DavidRuskuc, NikolaLet G be a group, and let <A \ R> be a finite group presentation for G with \R\ greater than or equal to \A\. Then there exists a, finite semigroup, presentation <B \ Q> for G such that \Q\ - \B\ = \R\ - \A\. Moreover, B is either the same generating set or else it contains one additional generator.